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authorLuke Gruber <luke.gru@gmail.com>2023-01-28 20:01:49 -0500
committerGitHub <noreply@github.com>2023-01-29 10:01:49 +0900
commit4ffef59bb1c83b0e552b3e50b6bb1c1a34673d1c (patch)
tree84b4e74d1c97f4fb77dd4938a95f5a6fe347c29a
parent8250b4679453c095eab2f60d9147ca2fe4da32c6 (diff)
[DOC] Make changes to docs in ractor.rb (#7180)HEADmaster
* Make changes to docs in ractor.rb Mainly English changes to make things more clear, and to fix minor non-idiomatic phrases. Also clarified difference between frozen and shareable objects. * More minor changes to Ractor docs.
Notes
Notes: Merged-By: zzak <zzakscott@gmail.com>
-rw-r--r--ractor.rb240
1 files changed, 126 insertions, 114 deletions
diff --git a/ractor.rb b/ractor.rb
index 1031fe499b..e7485dc4bf 100644
--- a/ractor.rb
+++ b/ractor.rb
@@ -1,51 +1,56 @@
-# Ractor is an Actor-model abstraction for Ruby that provides thread-safe parallel execution.
+# \Ractor is an Actor-model abstraction for Ruby that provides thread-safe parallel execution.
#
-# Ractor.new can make a new Ractor, and it will run in parallel.
+# Ractor.new makes a new \Ractor, which can run in parallel.
#
# # The simplest ractor
# r = Ractor.new {puts "I am in Ractor!"}
# r.take # wait for it to finish
-# # here "I am in Ractor!" would be printed
+# # Here, "I am in Ractor!" is printed
#
-# Ractors do not share usual objects, so the same kinds of thread-safety concerns such as data-race,
-# race-conditions are not available on multi-ractor programming.
+# Ractors do not share all objects with each other. There are two main benefits to this: across ractors, thread-safety
+# concerns such as data-races and race-conditions are not possible. The other benefit is parallelism.
#
-# To achieve this, ractors severely limit object sharing between different ractors.
-# For example, unlike threads, ractors can't access each other's objects, nor any objects through
-# variables of the outer scope.
+# To achieve this, object sharing is limited across ractors.
+# For example, unlike in threads, ractors can't access all the objects available in other ractors. Even objects normally
+# available through variables in the outer scope are prohibited from being used across ractors.
#
# a = 1
# r = Ractor.new {puts "I am in Ractor! a=#{a}"}
# # fails immediately with
# # ArgumentError (can not isolate a Proc because it accesses outer variables (a).)
#
+# The object must be explicity shared:
+# a = 1
+# r = Ractor.new(a) { |a1| puts "I am in Ractor! a=#{a1}"}
+#
# On CRuby (the default implementation), Global Virtual Machine Lock (GVL) is held per ractor, so
-# ractors are performed in parallel without locking each other.
+# ractors can perform in parallel without locking each other. This is unlike the situation with threads
+# on CRuby.
#
-# Instead of accessing the shared state, the objects should be passed to and from ractors via
-# sending and receiving objects as messages.
+# Instead of accessing shared state, objects should be passed to and from ractors by
+# sending and receiving them as messages.
#
# a = 1
# r = Ractor.new do
-# a_in_ractor = receive # receive blocks till somebody will pass message
+# a_in_ractor = receive # receive blocks until somebody passes a message
# puts "I am in Ractor! a=#{a_in_ractor}"
# end
# r.send(a) # pass it
# r.take
-# # here "I am in Ractor! a=1" would be printed
+# # Here, "I am in Ractor! a=1" is printed
#
# There are two pairs of methods for sending/receiving messages:
#
# * Ractor#send and Ractor.receive for when the _sender_ knows the receiver (push);
# * Ractor.yield and Ractor#take for when the _receiver_ knows the sender (pull);
#
-# In addition to that, an argument to Ractor.new would be passed to block and available there
-# as if received by Ractor.receive, and the last block value would be sent outside of the
+# In addition to that, any arguments passed to Ractor.new are passed to the block and available there
+# as if received by Ractor.receive, and the last block value is sent outside of the
# ractor as if sent by Ractor.yield.
#
-# A little demonstration on a classic ping-pong:
+# A little demonstration of a classic ping-pong:
#
-# server = Ractor.new do
+# server = Ractor.new(name: "server") do
# puts "Server starts: #{self.inspect}"
# puts "Server sends: ping"
# Ractor.yield 'ping' # The server doesn't know the receiver and sends to whoever interested
@@ -53,44 +58,48 @@
# puts "Server received: #{received}"
# end
#
-# client = Ractor.new(server) do |srv| # The server is sent inside client, and available as srv
+# client = Ractor.new(server) do |srv| # The server is sent to the client, and available as srv
# puts "Client starts: #{self.inspect}"
-# received = srv.take # The Client takes a message specifically from the server
+# received = srv.take # The client takes a message from the server
# puts "Client received from " \
# "#{srv.inspect}: #{received}"
# puts "Client sends to " \
# "#{srv.inspect}: pong"
-# srv.send 'pong' # The client sends a message specifically to the server
+# srv.send 'pong' # The client sends a message to the server
# end
#
-# [client, server].each(&:take) # Wait till they both finish
+# [client, server].each(&:take) # Wait until they both finish
#
-# This will output:
+# This will output something like:
#
-# Server starts: #<Ractor:#2 test.rb:1 running>
+# Server starts: #<Ractor:#2 server test.rb:1 running>
# Server sends: ping
# Client starts: #<Ractor:#3 test.rb:8 running>
-# Client received from #<Ractor:#2 rac.rb:1 blocking>: ping
-# Client sends to #<Ractor:#2 rac.rb:1 blocking>: pong
+# Client received from #<Ractor:#2 server test.rb:1 blocking>: ping
+# Client sends to #<Ractor:#2 server test.rb:1 blocking>: pong
# Server received: pong
#
-# It is said that Ractor receives messages via the <em>incoming port</em>, and sends them
+# Ractors receive their messages via the <em>incoming port</em>, and send them
# to the <em>outgoing port</em>. Either one can be disabled with Ractor#close_incoming and
-# Ractor#close_outgoing respectively. If a ractor terminated, its ports will be closed
+# Ractor#close_outgoing, respectively. When a ractor terminates, its ports are closed
# automatically.
#
# == Shareable and unshareable objects
#
-# When the object is sent to and from the ractor, it is important to understand whether the
-# object is shareable or unshareable. Most of objects are unshareable objects.
+# When an object is sent to and from a ractor, it's important to understand whether the
+# object is shareable or unshareable. Most Ruby objects are unshareable objects. Even
+# frozen objects can be unshareable if they contain (through their instance variables) unfrozen
+# objects.
#
-# Shareable objects are basically those which can be used by several threads without compromising
-# thread-safety; e.g. immutable ones. Ractor.shareable? allows to check this, and Ractor.make_shareable
-# tries to make object shareable if it is not.
+# Shareable objects are those which can be used by several threads without compromising
+# thread-safety, for example numbers, +true+ and +false+. Ractor.shareable? allows you to check this,
+# and Ractor.make_shareable tries to make the object shareable if it's not already, and gives an error
+# if it can't do it.
#
-# Ractor.shareable?(1) #=> true -- numbers and other immutable basic values are
-# Ractor.shareable?('foo') #=> false, unless the string is frozen due to # freeze_string_literals: true
+# Ractor.shareable?(1) #=> true -- numbers and other immutable basic values are shareable
+# Ractor.shareable?('foo') #=> false, unless the string is frozen due to # frozen_string_literal: true
# Ractor.shareable?('foo'.freeze) #=> true
+# Ractor.shareable?([Object.new].freeze) #=> false, inner object is unfrozen
#
# ary = ['hello', 'world']
# ary.frozen? #=> false
@@ -100,10 +109,10 @@
# ary[0].frozen? #=> true
# ary[1].frozen? #=> true
#
-# When a shareable object is sent (via #send or Ractor.yield), no additional processing happens,
-# and it just becomes usable by both ractors. When an unshareable object is sent, it can be
-# either _copied_ or _moved_. The first is the default, and it makes the object's full copy by
-# deep cloning of non-shareable parts of its structure.
+# When a shareable object is sent (via #send or Ractor.yield), no additional processing occurs
+# on it. It just becomes usable by both ractors. When an unshareable object is sent, it can be
+# either _copied_ or _moved_. The first is the default, and it copies the object fully by
+# deep cloning (Object#clone) the non-shareable parts of its structure.
#
# data = ['foo', 'bar'.freeze]
# r = Ractor.new do
@@ -114,18 +123,18 @@
# r.take
# puts "Outside : #{data.object_id}, #{data[0].object_id}, #{data[1].object_id}"
#
-# This will output:
+# This will output something like:
#
# In ractor: 340, 360, 320
# Outside : 380, 400, 320
#
-# (Note that object id of both array and non-frozen string inside array have changed inside
-# the ractor, showing it is different objects. But the second array's element, which is a
-# shareable frozen string, has the same object_id.)
+# Note that the object ids of the array and the non-frozen string inside the array have changed in
+# the ractor because they are different objects. The second array's element, which is a
+# shareable frozen string, is the same object.
#
-# Deep cloning of the objects may be slow, and sometimes impossible. Alternatively,
-# <tt>move: true</tt> may be used on sending. This will <em>move</em> the object to the
-# receiving ractor, making it inaccessible for a sending ractor.
+# Deep cloning of objects may be slow, and sometimes impossible. Alternatively, <tt>move: true</tt> may
+# be used during sending. This will <em>move</em> the unshareable object to the receiving ractor, making it
+# inaccessible to the sending ractor.
#
# data = ['foo', 'bar']
# r = Ractor.new do
@@ -146,13 +155,14 @@
# Notice that even +inspect+ (and more basic methods like <tt>__id__</tt>) is inaccessible
# on a moved object.
#
-# Besides frozen objects, there are shareable objects. Class and Module objects are shareable so
-# the Class/Module definitions are shared between ractors. Ractor objects are also shareable objects.
-# All operations for the shareable mutable objects are thread-safe, so the thread-safety property
+# Class and Module objects are shareable so the class/module definitions are shared between ractors.
+# \Ractor objects are also shareable. All operations on shareable objects are thread-safe, so the thread-safety property
# will be kept. We can not define mutable shareable objects in Ruby, but C extensions can introduce them.
#
-# It is prohibited to access instance variables of mutable shareable objects (especially Modules and classes)
-# from ractors other than main:
+# It is prohibited to access (get) instance variables of shareable objects in other ractors if the values of the
+# variables aren't shareable. This can occur because modules/classes are shareable, but they can have
+# instance variables whose values are not. In non-main ractors, it's also prohibited to set instance
+# variables on classes/modules (even if the value is shareable).
#
# class C
# class << self
@@ -160,21 +170,22 @@
# end
# end
#
-# C.tricky = 'test'
+# C.tricky = "unshareable".dup
#
# r = Ractor.new(C) do |cls|
# puts "I see #{cls}"
# puts "I can't see #{cls.tricky}"
+# cls.tricky = true # doesn't get here, but this would also raise an error
# end
# r.take
# # I see C
# # can not access instance variables of classes/modules from non-main Ractors (RuntimeError)
#
-# Ractors can access constants if they are shareable. The main Ractor is the only one that can
+# Ractors can access constants if they are shareable. The main \Ractor is the only one that can
# access non-shareable constants.
#
# GOOD = 'good'.freeze
-# BAD = 'bad'
+# BAD = 'bad'.dup
#
# r = Ractor.new do
# puts "GOOD=#{GOOD}"
@@ -199,8 +210,8 @@
#
# == Ractors vs threads
#
-# Each ractor creates its own thread. New threads can be created from inside ractor
-# (and, on CRuby, sharing GVL with other threads of this ractor).
+# Each ractor has its own main Thread. New threads can be created from inside ractors
+# (and, on CRuby, they share the GVL with other threads of this ractor).
#
# r = Ractor.new do
# a = 1
@@ -211,15 +222,15 @@
#
# == Note on code examples
#
-# In examples below, sometimes we use the following method to wait till ractors that
-# are not currently blocked will finish (or process till next blocking) method.
+# In the examples below, sometimes we use the following method to wait for ractors that
+# are not currently blocked to finish (or to make progress).
#
# def wait
# sleep(0.1)
# end
#
# It is **only for demonstration purposes** and shouldn't be used in a real code.
-# Most of the times, just #take is used to wait till ractor will finish.
+# Most of the time, #take is used to wait for ractors to finish.
#
# == Reference
#
@@ -230,17 +241,17 @@ class Ractor
# call-seq:
# Ractor.new(*args, name: nil) {|*args| block } -> ractor
#
- # Create a new Ractor with args and a block.
+ # Create a new \Ractor with args and a block.
#
- # A block (Proc) will be isolated (can't access to outer variables). +self+
- # inside the block will refer to the current Ractor.
+ # The given block (Proc) will be isolated (can't access any outer variables). +self+
+ # inside the block will refer to the current \Ractor.
#
# r = Ractor.new { puts "Hi, I am #{self.inspect}" }
# r.take
# # Prints "Hi, I am #<Ractor:#2 test.rb:1 running>"
#
- # +args+ passed to the method would be propagated to block args by the same rules as
- # objects passed through #send/Ractor.receive: if +args+ are not shareable, they
+ # Any +args+ passed are propagated to the block arguments by the same rules as
+ # objects sent via #send/Ractor.receive. If an argument in +args+ is not shareable, it
# will be copied (via deep cloning, which might be inefficient).
#
# arg = [1, 2, 3]
@@ -255,7 +266,7 @@ class Ractor
#
# Ractor's +name+ can be set for debugging purposes:
#
- # r = Ractor.new(name: 'my ractor') {}
+ # r = Ractor.new(name: 'my ractor') {}; r.take
# p r
# #=> #<Ractor:#3 my ractor test.rb:1 terminated>
#
@@ -280,13 +291,13 @@ class Ractor
}
end
- # Returns total count of Ractors currently running.
+ # Returns the number of Ractors currently running or blocking (waiting).
#
# Ractor.count #=> 1
# r = Ractor.new(name: 'example') { Ractor.yield(1) }
# Ractor.count #=> 2 (main + example ractor)
# r.take # wait for Ractor.yield(1)
- # r.take # wait till r will finish
+ # r.take # wait until r will finish
# Ractor.count #=> 1
def self.count
__builtin_cexpr! %q{
@@ -298,8 +309,8 @@ class Ractor
# call-seq:
# Ractor.select(*ractors, [yield_value:, move: false]) -> [ractor or symbol, obj]
#
- # Waits for the first ractor to have something in its outgoing port, reads from this ractor, and
- # returns that ractor and the object received.
+ # Wait for any ractor to have something in its outgoing port, read from this ractor, and
+ # then return that ractor and the object received.
#
# r1 = Ractor.new {Ractor.yield 'from 1'}
# r2 = Ractor.new {Ractor.yield 'from 2'}
@@ -308,9 +319,10 @@ class Ractor
#
# puts "received #{obj.inspect} from #{r.inspect}"
# # Prints: received "from 1" from #<Ractor:#2 test.rb:1 running>
+ # # But could just as well print "from r2" here, either prints could be first.
#
- # If one of the given ractors is the current ractor, and it would be selected, +r+ will contain
- # +:receive+ symbol instead of the ractor object.
+ # If one of the given ractors is the current ractor, and it is selected, +r+ will contain
+ # the +:receive+ symbol instead of the ractor object.
#
# r1 = Ractor.new(Ractor.current) do |main|
# main.send 'to main'
@@ -322,10 +334,10 @@ class Ractor
#
# r, obj = Ractor.select(r1, r2, Ractor.current)
# puts "received #{obj.inspect} from #{r.inspect}"
- # # Prints: received "to main" from :receive
+ # # Could print: received "to main" from :receive
#
- # If +yield_value+ is provided, that value may be yielded if another Ractor is calling #take.
- # In this case, the pair <tt>[:yield, nil]</tt> would be returned:
+ # If +yield_value+ is provided, that value may be yielded if another ractor is calling #take.
+ # In this case, the pair <tt>[:yield, nil]</tt> is returned:
#
# r1 = Ractor.new(Ractor.current) do |main|
# puts "Received from main: #{main.take}"
@@ -342,7 +354,7 @@ class Ractor
# Received from main: 123
# Received nil from :yield
#
- # +move+ boolean flag defines whether yielded value should be copied (default) or moved.
+ # +move+ boolean flag defines whether yielded value will be copied (default) or moved.
def self.select(*ractors, yield_value: yield_unspecified = true, move: false)
raise ArgumentError, 'specify at least one ractor or `yield_value`' if yield_unspecified && ractors.empty?
@@ -360,8 +372,8 @@ class Ractor
# call-seq:
# Ractor.receive -> msg
#
- # Receive an incoming message from the current Ractor's incoming port's queue, which was
- # sent there by #send.
+ # Receive a message from the incoming port of the current ractor (which was
+ # sent there by #send from another ractor).
#
# r = Ractor.new do
# v1 = Ractor.receive
@@ -371,7 +383,7 @@ class Ractor
# r.take
# # Here will be printed: "Received: message1"
#
- # Alternatively, private instance method +receive+ may be used:
+ # Alternatively, the private instance method +receive+ may be used:
#
# r = Ractor.new do
# v1 = receive
@@ -379,7 +391,7 @@ class Ractor
# end
# r.send('message1')
# r.take
- # # Here will be printed: "Received: message1"
+ # # This prints: "Received: message1"
#
# The method blocks if the queue is empty.
#
@@ -407,7 +419,7 @@ class Ractor
# Received: message2
#
# If close_incoming was called on the ractor, the method raises Ractor::ClosedError
- # if there are no more messages in incoming queue:
+ # if there are no more messages in the incoming queue:
#
# Ractor.new do
# close_incoming
@@ -440,8 +452,9 @@ class Ractor
#
# Receive only a specific message.
#
- # Instead of Ractor.receive, Ractor.receive_if can provide a pattern
- # by a block and you can choose the receiving message.
+ # Instead of Ractor.receive, Ractor.receive_if can be given a pattern (or any
+ # filter) in a block and you can choose the messages to accept that are available in
+ # your ractor's incoming queue.
#
# r = Ractor.new do
# p Ractor.receive_if{|msg| msg.match?(/foo/)} #=> "foo3"
@@ -459,10 +472,10 @@ class Ractor
# bar1
# baz2
#
- # If the block returns a truthy value, the message will be removed from the incoming queue
+ # If the block returns a truthy value, the message is removed from the incoming queue
# and returned.
- # Otherwise, the message remains in the incoming queue and the following received
- # messages are checked by the given block.
+ # Otherwise, the message remains in the incoming queue and the next messages are checked
+ # by the given block.
#
# If there are no messages left in the incoming queue, the method will
# block until new messages arrive.
@@ -488,7 +501,7 @@ class Ractor
# Received successfully: [1, 2, 3]
#
# Note that you can not call receive/receive_if in the given block recursively.
- # It means that you should not do any tasks in the block.
+ # You should not do any tasks in the block other than message filtration.
#
# Ractor.current << true
# Ractor.receive_if{|msg| Ractor.receive}
@@ -498,6 +511,7 @@ class Ractor
Primitive.ractor_receive_if b
end
+ # same as Ractor.receive_if
private def receive_if &b
Primitive.ractor_receive_if b
end
@@ -506,7 +520,7 @@ class Ractor
# call-seq:
# ractor.send(msg, move: false) -> self
#
- # Send a message to a Ractor's incoming queue to be consumed by Ractor.receive.
+ # Send a message to a Ractor's incoming queue to be accepted by Ractor.receive.
#
# r = Ractor.new do
# value = Ractor.receive
@@ -523,7 +537,7 @@ class Ractor
# puts "Sent successfully"
# # Prints: "Sent successfully" immediately
#
- # Attempt to send to ractor which already finished its execution will raise Ractor::ClosedError.
+ # An attempt to send to a ractor which already finished its execution will raise Ractor::ClosedError.
#
# r = Ractor.new {}
# r.take
@@ -541,11 +555,11 @@ class Ractor
# r.close_incoming
# r.send('test')
# # Ractor::ClosedError (The incoming-port is already closed)
- # # The error would be raised immediately, not when ractor will try to receive
+ # # The error is raised immediately, not when the ractor tries to receive
#
- # If the +obj+ is unshareable, by default it would be copied into ractor by deep cloning.
- # If the <tt>move: true</tt> is passed, object is _moved_ into ractor and becomes
- # inaccessible to sender.
+ # If the +obj+ is unshareable, by default it will be copied into the receiving ractor by deep cloning.
+ # If <tt>move: true</tt> is passed, the object is _moved_ into the receiving ractor and becomes
+ # inaccessible to the sender.
#
# r = Ractor.new {puts "Received: #{receive}"}
# msg = 'message'
@@ -558,7 +572,7 @@ class Ractor
# Received: message
# in `p': undefined method `inspect' for #<Ractor::MovedObject:0x000055c99b9b69b8>
#
- # All references to the object and its parts will become invalid in sender.
+ # All references to the object and its parts will become invalid to the sender.
#
# r = Ractor.new {puts "Received: #{receive}"}
# s = 'message'
@@ -576,7 +590,7 @@ class Ractor
# # Ractor::MovedError (can not send any methods to a moved object)
# # ...but its item was still a reference to `s`, which was moved
#
- # If the object was shareable, <tt>move: true</tt> has no effect on it:
+ # If the object is shareable, <tt>move: true</tt> has no effect on it:
#
# r = Ractor.new {puts "Received: #{receive}"}
# s = 'message'.freeze
@@ -594,13 +608,13 @@ class Ractor
# call-seq:
# Ractor.yield(msg, move: false) -> nil
#
- # Send a message to the current ractor's outgoing port to be consumed by #take.
+ # Send a message to the current ractor's outgoing port to be accepted by #take.
#
# r = Ractor.new {Ractor.yield 'Hello from ractor'}
# puts r.take
# # Prints: "Hello from ractor"
#
- # The method is blocking, and will return only when somebody consumes the
+ # This method is blocking, and will return only when somebody consumes the
# sent message.
#
# r = Ractor.new do
@@ -626,7 +640,7 @@ class Ractor
# wait
# # `yield': The outgoing-port is already closed (Ractor::ClosedError)
#
- # The meaning of +move+ argument is the same as for #send.
+ # The meaning of the +move+ argument is the same as for #send.
def self.yield(obj, move: false)
__builtin_cexpr! %q{
ractor_yield(ec, rb_ec_ractor_ptr(ec), obj, move)
@@ -637,8 +651,8 @@ class Ractor
# call-seq:
# ractor.take -> msg
#
- # Take a message from ractor's outgoing port, which was put there by Ractor.yield or at ractor's
- # finalization.
+ # Get a message from the ractor's outgoing port, which was put there by Ractor.yield or at ractor's
+ # termination.
#
# r = Ractor.new do
# Ractor.yield 'explicit yield'
@@ -648,9 +662,9 @@ class Ractor
# puts r.take #=> 'last value'
# puts r.take # Ractor::ClosedError (The outgoing-port is already closed)
#
- # The fact that the last value is also put to outgoing port means that +take+ can be used
- # as some analog of Thread#join ("just wait till ractor finishes"), but don't forget it
- # will raise if somebody had already consumed everything ractor have produced.
+ # The fact that the last value is also sent to the outgoing port means that +take+ can be used
+ # as an analog of Thread#join ("just wait until ractor finishes"). However, it will raise if
+ # somebody has already consumed that message.
#
# If the outgoing port was closed with #close_outgoing, the method will raise Ractor::ClosedError.
#
@@ -663,7 +677,7 @@ class Ractor
# # Ractor::ClosedError (The outgoing-port is already closed)
# # The error would be raised immediately, not when ractor will try to receive
#
- # If an uncaught exception is raised in the Ractor, it is propagated on take as a
+ # If an uncaught exception is raised in the Ractor, it is propagated by take as a
# Ractor::RemoteError.
#
# r = Ractor.new {raise "Something weird happened"}
@@ -676,8 +690,8 @@ class Ractor
# p e.cause # => #<RuntimeError: Something weird happened>
# end
#
- # Ractor::ClosedError is a descendant of StopIteration, so the closing of the ractor will break
- # the loops without propagating the error:
+ # Ractor::ClosedError is a descendant of StopIteration, so the termination of the ractor will break
+ # out of any loops that receive this message without propagating the error:
#
# r = Ractor.new do
# 3.times {|i| Ractor.yield "message #{i}"}
@@ -725,9 +739,8 @@ class Ractor
# call-seq:
# ractor.close_incoming -> true | false
#
- # Closes the incoming port and returns its previous state.
- # All further attempts to Ractor.receive in the ractor, and #send to the ractor
- # will fail with Ractor::ClosedError.
+ # Closes the incoming port and returns whether it was already closed. All further attempts
+ # to Ractor.receive in the ractor, and #send to the ractor will fail with Ractor::ClosedError.
#
# r = Ractor.new {sleep(500)}
# r.close_incoming #=> false
@@ -744,9 +757,8 @@ class Ractor
# call-seq:
# ractor.close_outgoing -> true | false
#
- # Closes the outgoing port and returns its previous state.
- # All further attempts to Ractor.yield in the ractor, and #take from the ractor
- # will fail with Ractor::ClosedError.
+ # Closes the outgoing port and returns whether it was already closed. All further attempts
+ # to Ractor.yield in the ractor, and #take from the ractor will fail with Ractor::ClosedError.
#
# r = Ractor.new {sleep(500)}
# r.close_outgoing #=> false
@@ -766,10 +778,10 @@ class Ractor
# Checks if the object is shareable by ractors.
#
# Ractor.shareable?(1) #=> true -- numbers and other immutable basic values are frozen
- # Ractor.shareable?('foo') #=> false, unless the string is frozen due to # freeze_string_literals: true
+ # Ractor.shareable?('foo') #=> false, unless the string is frozen due to # frozen_string_literal: true
# Ractor.shareable?('foo'.freeze) #=> true
#
- # See also the "Shareable and unshareable objects" section in the Ractor class docs.
+ # See also the "Shareable and unshareable objects" section in the \Ractor class docs.
def self.shareable? obj
__builtin_cexpr! %q{
RBOOL(rb_ractor_shareable_p(obj));
@@ -785,8 +797,8 @@ class Ractor
# +obj+ and all the objects it refers to will be frozen, unless they are
# already shareable.
#
- # If +copy+ keyword is +true+, the method will copy objects before freezing them
- # This is safer option but it can take be slower.
+ # If +copy+ keyword is +true+, it will copy objects before freezing them, and will not
+ # modify +obj+ or its internal objects.
#
# Note that the specification and implementation of this method are not
# mature and may be changed in the future.