summaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/test/ruby/test_io.rb
blob: f2e9128e8aa8395a9ca6838ab881c892d3f22018 (plain)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722
2723
2724
2725
2726
2727
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742
2743
2744
2745
2746
2747
2748
2749
2750
2751
2752
2753
2754
2755
2756
2757
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762
2763
2764
2765
2766
2767
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2785
2786
2787
2788
2789
2790
2791
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796
2797
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802
2803
2804
2805
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
2819
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840
2841
2842
2843
2844
2845
2846
2847
2848
2849
2850
2851
2852
2853
2854
2855
2856
2857
2858
2859
2860
2861
2862
2863
2864
2865
2866
2867
2868
2869
2870
2871
2872
2873
2874
2875
2876
2877
2878
2879
2880
2881
2882
2883
2884
2885
2886
2887
2888
2889
2890
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896
2897
2898
2899
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
2905
2906
2907
2908
2909
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914
2915
2916
2917
2918
2919
2920
2921
2922
2923
2924
2925
2926
2927
2928
2929
2930
2931
2932
2933
2934
2935
2936
2937
2938
2939
2940
2941
2942
2943
2944
2945
2946
2947
2948
2949
2950
2951
2952
2953
2954
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959
2960
2961
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966
2967
2968
2969
2970
2971
2972
2973
2974
2975
2976
2977
2978
2979
2980
2981
2982
2983
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988
2989
2990
2991
2992
2993
2994
2995
2996
2997
2998
2999
3000
3001
3002
3003
3004
3005
3006
3007
3008
3009
3010
3011
3012
3013
3014
3015
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029
3030
3031
3032
3033
3034
3035
3036
3037
3038
3039
3040
3041
3042
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
3048
3049
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3055
3056
3057
3058
3059
3060
3061
3062
3063
3064
3065
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070
3071
3072
3073
3074
3075
3076
3077
3078
3079
3080
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086
3087
3088
3089
3090
3091
3092
3093
3094
3095
3096
3097
3098
3099
3100
3101
3102
3103
3104
3105
3106
3107
3108
3109
3110
3111
3112
3113
3114
3115
3116
3117
3118
3119
3120
3121
3122
3123
3124
3125
3126
3127
3128
3129
3130
3131
3132
3133
3134
3135
3136
3137
3138
3139
3140
3141
3142
3143
3144
3145
3146
3147
3148
3149
3150
3151
3152
3153
3154
3155
3156
3157
3158
3159
3160
3161
3162
3163
3164
3165
3166
3167
3168
3169
3170
3171
3172
3173
3174
3175
3176
3177
3178
3179
3180
3181
3182
3183
3184
3185
3186
3187
3188
3189
3190
3191
3192
3193
3194
3195
3196
3197
3198
3199
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210
3211
3212
3213
3214
3215
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224
3225
3226
3227
3228
3229
3230
3231
3232
3233
3234
3235
3236
3237
3238
3239
3240
3241
3242
3243
3244
3245
3246
3247
3248
3249
3250
3251
3252
3253
3254
3255
3256
3257
3258
3259
3260
3261
3262
3263
3264
3265
3266
3267
3268
3269
3270
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275
3276
3277
3278
3279
3280
3281
3282
3283
3284
3285
3286
3287
3288
3289
3290
3291
3292
3293
3294
3295
3296
3297
3298
3299
3300
3301
3302
3303
3304
3305
3306
3307
3308
3309
3310
3311
3312
3313
3314
3315
3316
3317
3318
3319
3320
3321
3322
3323
3324
3325
3326
3327
3328
3329
3330
3331
3332
3333
3334
3335
3336
3337
3338
3339
3340
3341
3342
3343
3344
3345
3346
3347
3348
3349
3350
3351
3352
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357
3358
3359
3360
3361
3362
3363
3364
3365
3366
3367
3368
3369
3370
3371
3372
3373
3374
3375
3376
3377
3378
3379
3380
3381
3382
3383
3384
3385
3386
3387
3388
3389
3390
3391
3392
3393
3394
3395
3396
3397
3398
3399
3400
3401
3402
3403
3404
3405
3406
3407
3408
3409
3410
3411
3412
3413
3414
3415
3416
3417
3418
3419
3420
3421
3422
3423
3424
3425
3426
3427
3428
3429
3430
3431
3432
3433
3434
3435
3436
3437
3438
3439
3440
3441
3442
3443
3444
3445
3446
3447
3448
3449
3450
3451
3452
3453
3454
3455
3456
3457
3458
3459
3460
3461
3462
3463
3464
3465
3466
3467
3468
3469
3470
3471
3472
3473
3474
3475
3476
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481
3482
3483
3484
3485
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
3491
3492
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499
3500
3501
3502
3503
3504
3505
3506
3507
3508
3509
3510
3511
3512
3513
3514
3515
3516
3517
3518
3519
3520
3521
3522
3523
3524
3525
3526
3527
3528
3529
3530
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535
3536
3537
3538
3539
3540
3541
3542
3543
3544
3545
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3556
3557
3558
3559
3560
3561
3562
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569
3570
3571
3572
3573
3574
3575
3576
3577
3578
3579
3580
3581
3582
3583
3584
3585
3586
3587
3588
3589
3590
3591
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602
3603
3604
3605
3606
3607
3608
3609
3610
3611
3612
3613
3614
3615
3616
3617
3618
3619
3620
3621
3622
3623
3624
3625
3626
3627
3628
3629
3630
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635
3636
3637
3638
3639
3640
3641
3642
3643
3644
3645
3646
3647
3648
3649
3650
3651
3652
3653
3654
3655
3656
3657
3658
3659
3660
3661
3662
3663
3664
3665
3666
3667
3668
3669
3670
3671
3672
3673
3674
3675
3676
3677
3678
3679
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684
3685
3686
3687
3688
3689
3690
3691
3692
3693
3694
3695
3696
3697
3698
3699
3700
3701
3702
3703
3704
3705
3706
3707
3708
3709
3710
3711
3712
3713
3714
3715
3716
3717
3718
3719
3720
3721
3722
3723
3724
3725
3726
3727
3728
3729
3730
3731
3732
3733
3734
3735
3736
3737
3738
3739
3740
3741
3742
3743
3744
3745
3746
3747
3748
3749
3750
3751
3752
3753
3754
3755
3756
3757
3758
3759
3760
3761
3762
3763
3764
3765
3766
3767
3768
3769
3770
3771
3772
3773
3774
3775
3776
3777
3778
3779
3780
3781
3782
3783
3784
3785
3786
3787
3788
3789
3790
3791
3792
3793
3794
3795
3796
3797
3798
3799
3800
3801
3802
3803
3804
3805
3806
3807
3808
3809
3810
3811
3812
3813
3814
3815
3816
3817
3818
3819
3820
3821
3822
3823
3824
3825
3826
3827
3828
3829
3830
3831
3832
3833
3834
3835
3836
3837
3838
3839
3840
3841
3842
3843
3844
# coding: US-ASCII
# frozen_string_literal: false
require 'test/unit'
require 'tmpdir'
require "fcntl"
require 'io/nonblock'
require 'pathname'
require 'socket'
require 'stringio'
require 'timeout'
require 'tempfile'
require 'weakref'

class TestIO < Test::Unit::TestCase
  module Feature
    def have_close_on_exec?
      $stdin.close_on_exec?
      true
    rescue NotImplementedError
      false
    end

    def have_nonblock?
      IO.method_defined?("nonblock=")
    end
  end

  include Feature
  extend Feature

  def pipe(wp, rp)
    re, we = nil, nil
    r, w = IO.pipe
    rt = Thread.new do
      begin
        rp.call(r)
      rescue Exception
        r.close
        re = $!
      end
    end
    wt = Thread.new do
      begin
        wp.call(w)
      rescue Exception
        w.close
        we = $!
      end
    end
    flunk("timeout") unless wt.join(10) && rt.join(10)
  ensure
    w&.close
    r&.close
    (wt.kill; wt.join) if wt
    (rt.kill; rt.join) if rt
    raise we if we
    raise re if re
  end

  def with_pipe
    r, w = IO.pipe
    begin
      yield r, w
    ensure
      r.close
      w.close
    end
  end

  def with_read_pipe(content)
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w << content
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      yield r
    end)
  end

  def mkcdtmpdir
    Dir.mktmpdir {|d|
      Dir.chdir(d) {
        yield
      }
    }
  end

  def trapping_usr2
    @usr2_rcvd  = 0
    r, w = IO.pipe
    trap(:USR2) do
      w.write([@usr2_rcvd += 1].pack('L'))
    end
    yield r
  ensure
    trap(:USR2, "DEFAULT")
    w&.close
    r&.close
  end

  def test_pipe
    r, w = IO.pipe
    assert_instance_of(IO, r)
    assert_instance_of(IO, w)
    [
      Thread.start{
        w.print "abc"
        w.close
      },
      Thread.start{
        assert_equal("abc", r.read)
        r.close
      }
    ].each{|thr| thr.join}
  end

  def test_pipe_block
    x = nil
    ret = IO.pipe {|r, w|
      x = [r,w]
      assert_instance_of(IO, r)
      assert_instance_of(IO, w)
      [
        Thread.start do
          w.print "abc"
          w.close
        end,
        Thread.start do
          assert_equal("abc", r.read)
        end
      ].each{|thr| thr.join}
      assert_not_predicate(r, :closed?)
      assert_predicate(w, :closed?)
      :foooo
    }
    assert_equal(:foooo, ret)
    assert_predicate(x[0], :closed?)
    assert_predicate(x[1], :closed?)
  end

  def test_pipe_block_close
    4.times {|i|
      x = nil
      IO.pipe {|r, w|
        x = [r,w]
        r.close if (i&1) == 0
        w.close if (i&2) == 0
      }
      assert_predicate(x[0], :closed?)
      assert_predicate(x[1], :closed?)
    }
  end

  def test_gets_rs
    rs = ":"
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.print "aaa:bbb"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal "aaa:", r.gets(rs)
      assert_equal "bbb", r.gets(rs)
      assert_nil r.gets(rs)
      r.close
    end)
  end

  def test_gets_default_rs
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.print "aaa\nbbb\n"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal "aaa\n", r.gets
      assert_equal "bbb\n", r.gets
      assert_nil r.gets
      r.close
    end)
  end

  def test_gets_rs_nil
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.print "a\n\nb\n\n"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal "a\n\nb\n\n", r.gets(nil)
      assert_nil r.gets("")
      r.close
    end)
  end

  def test_gets_rs_377
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.print "\377xyz"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      r.binmode
      assert_equal("\377", r.gets("\377"), "[ruby-dev:24460]")
      r.close
    end)
  end

  def test_gets_paragraph
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.print "a\n\nb\n\n"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal "a\n\n", r.gets(""), "[ruby-core:03771]"
      assert_equal "b\n\n", r.gets("")
      assert_nil r.gets("")
      r.close
    end)
  end

  def test_gets_chomp_rs
    rs = ":"
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.print "aaa:bbb"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal "aaa", r.gets(rs, chomp: true)
      assert_equal "bbb", r.gets(rs, chomp: true)
      assert_nil r.gets(rs, chomp: true)
      r.close
    end)
  end

  def test_gets_chomp_default_rs
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.print "aaa\r\nbbb\nccc"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal "aaa", r.gets(chomp: true)
      assert_equal "bbb", r.gets(chomp: true)
      assert_equal "ccc", r.gets(chomp: true)
      assert_nil r.gets
      r.close
    end)
  end

  def test_gets_chomp_rs_nil
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.print "a\n\nb\n\n"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal "a\n\nb\n", r.gets(nil, chomp: true)
      assert_nil r.gets("")
      r.close
    end)
  end

  def test_gets_chomp_paragraph
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.print "a\n\nb\n\n"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal "a", r.gets("", chomp: true)
      assert_equal "b", r.gets("", chomp: true)
      assert_nil r.gets("", chomp: true)
      r.close
    end)
  end

  def test_gets_limit_extra_arg
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w << "0123456789\n0123456789"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal("0123456789\n0", r.gets(nil, 12))
      assert_raise(TypeError) { r.gets(3,nil) }
    end)
  end

  # This test cause SEGV.
  def test_ungetc
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      s = "a" * 1000
      assert_raise(IOError, "[ruby-dev:31650]") { 200.times { r.ungetc s } }
    end)
  end

  def test_ungetbyte
    make_tempfile {|t|
      t.open
      t.binmode
      t.ungetbyte(0x41)
      assert_equal(-1, t.pos)
      assert_equal(0x41, t.getbyte)
      t.rewind
      assert_equal(0, t.pos)
      t.ungetbyte("qux")
      assert_equal(-3, t.pos)
      assert_equal("quxfoo\n", t.gets)
      assert_equal(4, t.pos)
      t.set_encoding("utf-8")
      t.ungetbyte(0x89)
      t.ungetbyte(0x8e)
      t.ungetbyte("\xe7")
      t.ungetbyte("\xe7\xb4\x85")
      assert_equal(-2, t.pos)
      assert_equal("\u7d05\u7389bar\n", t.gets)
    }
  end

  def test_each_byte
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w << "abc def"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      r.each_byte {|byte| break if byte == 32 }
      assert_equal("def", r.read, "[ruby-dev:31659]")
    end)
  end

  def test_each_byte_with_seek
    make_tempfile {|t|
      bug5119 = '[ruby-core:38609]'
      i = 0
      open(t.path) do |f|
        f.each_byte {i = f.pos}
      end
      assert_equal(12, i, bug5119)
    }
  end

  def test_each_codepoint
    make_tempfile {|t|
      bug2959 = '[ruby-core:28650]'
      a = ""
      File.open(t, 'rt') {|f|
        f.each_codepoint {|c| a << c}
      }
      assert_equal("foo\nbar\nbaz\n", a, bug2959)
    }
  end

  def test_codepoints
    make_tempfile {|t|
      bug2959 = '[ruby-core:28650]'
      a = ""
      File.open(t, 'rt') {|f|
        assert_warn(/deprecated/) {
          f.codepoints {|c| a << c}
        }
      }
      assert_equal("foo\nbar\nbaz\n", a, bug2959)
    }
  end

  def test_rubydev33072
    t = make_tempfile
    path = t.path
    t.close!
    assert_raise(Errno::ENOENT, "[ruby-dev:33072]") do
      File.read(path, nil, nil, {})
    end
  end

  def with_srccontent(content = "baz")
    src = "src"
    mkcdtmpdir {
      File.open(src, "w") {|f| f << content }
      yield src, content
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_small
    with_srccontent("foobar") {|src, content|
      ret = IO.copy_stream(src, "dst")
      assert_equal(content.bytesize, ret)
      assert_equal(content, File.read("dst"))
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_append
    with_srccontent("foobar") {|src, content|
      File.open('dst', 'ab') do |dst|
        ret = IO.copy_stream(src, dst)
        assert_equal(content.bytesize, ret)
        assert_equal(content, File.read("dst"))
      end
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_smaller
    with_srccontent {|src, content|

      # overwrite by smaller file.
      dst = "dst"
      File.open(dst, "w") {|f| f << "foobar"}

      ret = IO.copy_stream(src, dst)
      assert_equal(content.bytesize, ret)
      assert_equal(content, File.read(dst))

      ret = IO.copy_stream(src, dst, 2)
      assert_equal(2, ret)
      assert_equal(content[0,2], File.read(dst))

      ret = IO.copy_stream(src, dst, 0)
      assert_equal(0, ret)
      assert_equal("", File.read(dst))

      ret = IO.copy_stream(src, dst, nil, 1)
      assert_equal(content.bytesize-1, ret)
      assert_equal(content[1..-1], File.read(dst))
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_noent
    with_srccontent {|src, content|
      assert_raise(Errno::ENOENT) {
        IO.copy_stream("nodir/foo", "dst")
      }

      assert_raise(Errno::ENOENT) {
        IO.copy_stream(src, "nodir/bar")
      }
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_pipe
    with_srccontent {|src, content|
      pipe(proc do |w|
        ret = IO.copy_stream(src, w)
        assert_equal(content.bytesize, ret)
        w.close
      end, proc do |r|
        assert_equal(content, r.read)
      end)
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_write_pipe
    with_srccontent {|src, content|
      with_pipe {|r, w|
        w.close
        assert_raise(IOError) { IO.copy_stream(src, w) }
      }
    }
  end

  def with_pipecontent
    mkcdtmpdir {
      yield "abc"
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_pipe_to_file
    with_pipecontent {|pipe_content|
      dst = "dst"
      with_read_pipe(pipe_content) {|r|
        ret = IO.copy_stream(r, dst)
        assert_equal(pipe_content.bytesize, ret)
        assert_equal(pipe_content, File.read(dst))
      }
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_read_pipe
    with_pipecontent {|pipe_content|
      with_read_pipe(pipe_content) {|r1|
        assert_equal("a", r1.getc)
        pipe(proc do |w2|
          w2.sync = false
          w2 << "def"
          ret = IO.copy_stream(r1, w2)
          assert_equal(2, ret)
          w2.close
        end, proc do |r2|
          assert_equal("defbc", r2.read)
        end)
      }

      with_read_pipe(pipe_content) {|r1|
        assert_equal("a", r1.getc)
        pipe(proc do |w2|
          w2.sync = false
          w2 << "def"
          ret = IO.copy_stream(r1, w2, 1)
          assert_equal(1, ret)
          w2.close
        end, proc do |r2|
          assert_equal("defb", r2.read)
        end)
      }

      with_read_pipe(pipe_content) {|r1|
        assert_equal("a", r1.getc)
        pipe(proc do |w2|
          ret = IO.copy_stream(r1, w2)
          assert_equal(2, ret)
          w2.close
        end, proc do |r2|
          assert_equal("bc", r2.read)
        end)
      }

      with_read_pipe(pipe_content) {|r1|
        assert_equal("a", r1.getc)
        pipe(proc do |w2|
          ret = IO.copy_stream(r1, w2, 1)
          assert_equal(1, ret)
          w2.close
        end, proc do |r2|
          assert_equal("b", r2.read)
        end)
      }

      with_read_pipe(pipe_content) {|r1|
        assert_equal("a", r1.getc)
        pipe(proc do |w2|
          ret = IO.copy_stream(r1, w2, 0)
          assert_equal(0, ret)
          w2.close
        end, proc do |r2|
          assert_equal("", r2.read)
        end)
      }

      pipe(proc do |w1|
        w1 << "abc"
        w1 << "def"
        w1.close
      end, proc do |r1|
        assert_equal("a", r1.getc)
        pipe(proc do |w2|
          ret = IO.copy_stream(r1, w2)
          assert_equal(5, ret)
          w2.close
        end, proc do |r2|
          assert_equal("bcdef", r2.read)
        end)
      end)
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_file_to_pipe
    with_srccontent {|src, content|
      pipe(proc do |w|
        ret = IO.copy_stream(src, w, 1, 1)
        assert_equal(1, ret)
        w.close
      end, proc do |r|
        assert_equal(content[1,1], r.read)
      end)
    }
  end

  if have_nonblock?
    def test_copy_stream_no_busy_wait
      # JIT has busy wait on GC. It's hard to test this with JIT.
      skip "MJIT has busy wait on GC. We can't test this with JIT." if RubyVM::MJIT.enabled?
      skip "multiple threads already active" if Thread.list.size > 1

      msg = 'r58534 [ruby-core:80969] [Backport #13533]'
      IO.pipe do |r,w|
        r.nonblock = true
        assert_cpu_usage_low(msg) do
          th = Thread.new { IO.copy_stream(r, IO::NULL) }
          sleep 0.1
          w.close
          th.join
        end
      end
    end

    def test_copy_stream_pipe_nonblock
      mkcdtmpdir {
        with_read_pipe("abc") {|r1|
          assert_equal("a", r1.getc)
          with_pipe {|r2, w2|
            begin
              w2.nonblock = true
            rescue Errno::EBADF
              skip "nonblocking IO for pipe is not implemented"
            end
            s = w2.syswrite("a" * 100000)
            t = Thread.new { sleep 0.1; r2.read }
            ret = IO.copy_stream(r1, w2)
            w2.close
            assert_equal(2, ret)
            assert_equal("a" * s + "bc", t.value)
          }
        }
      }
    end
  end

  def with_bigcontent
    yield "abc" * 123456
  end

  def with_bigsrc
    mkcdtmpdir {
      with_bigcontent {|bigcontent|
        bigsrc = "bigsrc"
        File.open("bigsrc", "w") {|f| f << bigcontent }
        yield bigsrc, bigcontent
      }
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_bigcontent
    with_bigsrc {|bigsrc, bigcontent|
      ret = IO.copy_stream(bigsrc, "bigdst")
      assert_equal(bigcontent.bytesize, ret)
      assert_equal(bigcontent, File.read("bigdst"))
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_bigcontent_chop
    with_bigsrc {|bigsrc, bigcontent|
      ret = IO.copy_stream(bigsrc, "bigdst", nil, 100)
      assert_equal(bigcontent.bytesize-100, ret)
      assert_equal(bigcontent[100..-1], File.read("bigdst"))
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_bigcontent_mid
    with_bigsrc {|bigsrc, bigcontent|
      ret = IO.copy_stream(bigsrc, "bigdst", 30000, 100)
      assert_equal(30000, ret)
      assert_equal(bigcontent[100, 30000], File.read("bigdst"))
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_bigcontent_fpos
    with_bigsrc {|bigsrc, bigcontent|
      File.open(bigsrc) {|f|
        begin
          assert_equal(0, f.pos)
          ret = IO.copy_stream(f, "bigdst", nil, 10)
          assert_equal(bigcontent.bytesize-10, ret)
          assert_equal(bigcontent[10..-1], File.read("bigdst"))
          assert_equal(0, f.pos)
          ret = IO.copy_stream(f, "bigdst", 40, 30)
          assert_equal(40, ret)
          assert_equal(bigcontent[30, 40], File.read("bigdst"))
          assert_equal(0, f.pos)
        rescue NotImplementedError
          #skip "pread(2) is not implemented."
        end
      }
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_closed_pipe
    with_srccontent {|src,|
      with_pipe {|r, w|
        w.close
        assert_raise(IOError) { IO.copy_stream(src, w) }
      }
    }
  end

  def with_megacontent
    yield "abc" * 1234567
  end

  def with_megasrc
    mkcdtmpdir {
      with_megacontent {|megacontent|
        megasrc = "megasrc"
        File.open(megasrc, "w") {|f| f << megacontent }
        yield megasrc, megacontent
      }
    }
  end

  if have_nonblock?
    def test_copy_stream_megacontent_nonblock
      with_megacontent {|megacontent|
        with_pipe {|r1, w1|
          with_pipe {|r2, w2|
            begin
              r1.nonblock = true
              w2.nonblock = true
            rescue Errno::EBADF
              skip "nonblocking IO for pipe is not implemented"
            end
            t1 = Thread.new { w1 << megacontent; w1.close }
            t2 = Thread.new { r2.read }
            t3 = Thread.new {
              ret = IO.copy_stream(r1, w2)
              assert_equal(megacontent.bytesize, ret)
              w2.close
            }
            _, t2_value, _ = assert_join_threads([t1, t2, t3])
            assert_equal(megacontent, t2_value)
          }
        }
      }
    end
  end

  def test_copy_stream_megacontent_pipe_to_file
    with_megasrc {|megasrc, megacontent|
      with_pipe {|r1, w1|
        with_pipe {|r2, w2|
          t1 = Thread.new { w1 << megacontent; w1.close }
          t2 = Thread.new { r2.read }
          t3 = Thread.new {
            ret = IO.copy_stream(r1, w2)
            assert_equal(megacontent.bytesize, ret)
            w2.close
          }
          _, t2_value, _ = assert_join_threads([t1, t2, t3])
          assert_equal(megacontent, t2_value)
        }
      }
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_megacontent_file_to_pipe
    with_megasrc {|megasrc, megacontent|
      with_pipe {|r, w|
        t1 = Thread.new { r.read }
        t2 = Thread.new {
          ret = IO.copy_stream(megasrc, w)
          assert_equal(megacontent.bytesize, ret)
          w.close
        }
        t1_value, _ = assert_join_threads([t1, t2])
        assert_equal(megacontent, t1_value)
      }
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_rbuf
    mkcdtmpdir {
      begin
        pipe(proc do |w|
          File.open("foo", "w") {|f| f << "abcd" }
          File.open("foo") {|f|
            f.read(1)
            assert_equal(3, IO.copy_stream(f, w, 10, 1))
          }
          w.close
        end, proc do |r|
          assert_equal("bcd", r.read)
        end)
      rescue NotImplementedError
        skip "pread(2) is not implemtented."
      end
    }
  end

  def with_socketpair
    s1, s2 = UNIXSocket.pair
    begin
      yield s1, s2
    ensure
      s1.close unless s1.closed?
      s2.close unless s2.closed?
    end
  end

  def test_copy_stream_socket1
    with_srccontent("foobar") {|src, content|
      with_socketpair {|s1, s2|
        ret = IO.copy_stream(src, s1)
        assert_equal(content.bytesize, ret)
        s1.close
        assert_equal(content, s2.read)
      }
    }
  end if defined? UNIXSocket

  def test_copy_stream_socket2
    with_bigsrc {|bigsrc, bigcontent|
      with_socketpair {|s1, s2|
        t1 = Thread.new { s2.read }
        t2 = Thread.new {
          ret = IO.copy_stream(bigsrc, s1)
          assert_equal(bigcontent.bytesize, ret)
          s1.close
        }
        result, _ = assert_join_threads([t1, t2])
        assert_equal(bigcontent, result)
      }
    }
  end if defined? UNIXSocket

  def test_copy_stream_socket3
    with_bigsrc {|bigsrc, bigcontent|
      with_socketpair {|s1, s2|
        t1 = Thread.new { s2.read }
        t2 = Thread.new {
          ret = IO.copy_stream(bigsrc, s1, 10000)
          assert_equal(10000, ret)
          s1.close
        }
        result, _ = assert_join_threads([t1, t2])
        assert_equal(bigcontent[0,10000], result)
      }
    }
  end if defined? UNIXSocket

  def test_copy_stream_socket4
    with_bigsrc {|bigsrc, bigcontent|
      File.open(bigsrc) {|f|
        assert_equal(0, f.pos)
        with_socketpair {|s1, s2|
          t1 = Thread.new { s2.read }
          t2 = Thread.new {
            ret = IO.copy_stream(f, s1, nil, 100)
            assert_equal(bigcontent.bytesize-100, ret)
            assert_equal(0, f.pos)
            s1.close
          }
          result, _ = assert_join_threads([t1, t2])
          assert_equal(bigcontent[100..-1], result)
        }
      }
    }
  end if defined? UNIXSocket

  def test_copy_stream_socket5
    with_bigsrc {|bigsrc, bigcontent|
      File.open(bigsrc) {|f|
        assert_equal(bigcontent[0,100], f.read(100))
        assert_equal(100, f.pos)
        with_socketpair {|s1, s2|
          t1 = Thread.new { s2.read }
          t2 = Thread.new {
            ret = IO.copy_stream(f, s1)
            assert_equal(bigcontent.bytesize-100, ret)
            assert_equal(bigcontent.length, f.pos)
            s1.close
          }
          result, _ = assert_join_threads([t1, t2])
          assert_equal(bigcontent[100..-1], result)
        }
      }
    }
  end if defined? UNIXSocket

  def test_copy_stream_socket6
    mkcdtmpdir {
      megacontent = "abc" * 1234567
      File.open("megasrc", "w") {|f| f << megacontent }

      with_socketpair {|s1, s2|
        begin
          s1.nonblock = true
        rescue Errno::EBADF
          skip "nonblocking IO for pipe is not implemented"
        end
        t1 = Thread.new { s2.read }
        t2 = Thread.new {
          ret = IO.copy_stream("megasrc", s1)
          assert_equal(megacontent.bytesize, ret)
          s1.close
        }
        result, _ = assert_join_threads([t1, t2])
        assert_equal(megacontent, result)
      }
    }
  end if defined? UNIXSocket

  def test_copy_stream_socket7
    GC.start
    mkcdtmpdir {
      megacontent = "abc" * 1234567
      File.open("megasrc", "w") {|f| f << megacontent }

      with_socketpair {|s1, s2|
        begin
          s1.nonblock = true
        rescue Errno::EBADF
          skip "nonblocking IO for pipe is not implemented"
        end
        trapping_usr2 do |rd|
          nr = 30
          begin
            pid = fork do
              s1.close
              IO.select([s2])
              Process.kill(:USR2, Process.ppid)
              buf = String.new(capacity: 16384)
              nil while s2.read(16384, buf)
            end
            s2.close
            nr.times do
              assert_equal megacontent.bytesize, IO.copy_stream("megasrc", s1)
            end
            assert_equal(1, rd.read(4).unpack1('L'))
          ensure
            s1.close
            _, status = Process.waitpid2(pid) if pid
          end
          assert_predicate(status, :success?)
        end
      }
    }
  end if defined? UNIXSocket and IO.method_defined?("nonblock=")

  def test_copy_stream_strio
    src = StringIO.new("abcd")
    dst = StringIO.new
    ret = IO.copy_stream(src, dst)
    assert_equal(4, ret)
    assert_equal("abcd", dst.string)
    assert_equal(4, src.pos)
  end

  def test_copy_stream_strio_len
    src = StringIO.new("abcd")
    dst = StringIO.new
    ret = IO.copy_stream(src, dst, 3)
    assert_equal(3, ret)
    assert_equal("abc", dst.string)
    assert_equal(3, src.pos)
  end

  def test_copy_stream_strio_off
    src = StringIO.new("abcd")
    with_pipe {|r, w|
      assert_raise(ArgumentError) {
        IO.copy_stream(src, w, 3, 1)
      }
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_fname_to_strio
    mkcdtmpdir {
      File.open("foo", "w") {|f| f << "abcd" }
      src = "foo"
      dst = StringIO.new
      ret = IO.copy_stream(src, dst, 3)
      assert_equal(3, ret)
      assert_equal("abc", dst.string)
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_strio_to_fname
    mkcdtmpdir {
      # StringIO to filename
      src = StringIO.new("abcd")
      ret = IO.copy_stream(src, "fooo", 3)
      assert_equal(3, ret)
      assert_equal("abc", File.read("fooo"))
      assert_equal(3, src.pos)
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_io_to_strio
    mkcdtmpdir {
      # IO to StringIO
      File.open("bar", "w") {|f| f << "abcd" }
      File.open("bar") {|src|
        dst = StringIO.new
        ret = IO.copy_stream(src, dst, 3)
        assert_equal(3, ret)
        assert_equal("abc", dst.string)
        assert_equal(3, src.pos)
      }
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_strio_to_io
    mkcdtmpdir {
      # StringIO to IO
      src = StringIO.new("abcd")
      ret = File.open("baz", "w") {|dst|
        IO.copy_stream(src, dst, 3)
      }
      assert_equal(3, ret)
      assert_equal("abc", File.read("baz"))
      assert_equal(3, src.pos)
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_strio_to_tempfile
    bug11015 = '[ruby-core:68676] [Bug #11015]'
    # StringIO to Tempfile
    src = StringIO.new("abcd")
    dst = Tempfile.new("baz")
    ret = IO.copy_stream(src, dst)
    assert_equal(4, ret)
    pos = dst.pos
    dst.rewind
    assert_equal("abcd", dst.read)
    assert_equal(4, pos, bug11015)
  ensure
    dst.close!
  end

  def test_copy_stream_pathname_to_pathname
    bug11199 = '[ruby-dev:49008] [Bug #11199]'
    mkcdtmpdir {
      File.open("src", "w") {|f| f << "ok" }
      src = Pathname.new("src")
      dst = Pathname.new("dst")
      IO.copy_stream(src, dst)
      assert_equal("ok", IO.read("dst"), bug11199)
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_write_in_binmode
    bug8767 = '[ruby-core:56518] [Bug #8767]'
    mkcdtmpdir {
      EnvUtil.with_default_internal(Encoding::UTF_8) do
        # StringIO to object with to_path
        bytes = "\xDE\xAD\xBE\xEF".force_encoding(Encoding::ASCII_8BIT)
        src = StringIO.new(bytes)
        dst = Object.new
        def dst.to_path
          "qux"
        end
        assert_nothing_raised(bug8767) {
          IO.copy_stream(src, dst)
        }
        assert_equal(bytes, File.binread("qux"), bug8767)
        assert_equal(4, src.pos, bug8767)
      end
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_read_in_binmode
    bug8767 = '[ruby-core:56518] [Bug #8767]'
    mkcdtmpdir {
      EnvUtil.with_default_internal(Encoding::UTF_8) do
        # StringIO to object with to_path
        bytes = "\xDE\xAD\xBE\xEF".force_encoding(Encoding::ASCII_8BIT)
        File.binwrite("qux", bytes)
        dst = StringIO.new
        src = Object.new
        def src.to_path
          "qux"
        end
        assert_nothing_raised(bug8767) {
          IO.copy_stream(src, dst)
        }
        assert_equal(bytes, dst.string.b, bug8767)
        assert_equal(4, dst.pos, bug8767)
      end
    }
  end

  class Rot13IO
    def initialize(io)
      @io = io
    end

    def readpartial(*args)
      ret = @io.readpartial(*args)
      ret.tr!('a-zA-Z', 'n-za-mN-ZA-M')
      ret
    end

    def write(str)
      @io.write(str.tr('a-zA-Z', 'n-za-mN-ZA-M'))
    end

    def to_io
      @io
    end
  end

  def test_copy_stream_io_to_rot13
    mkcdtmpdir {
      File.open("bar", "w") {|f| f << "vex" }
      File.open("bar") {|src|
        File.open("baz", "w") {|dst0|
          dst = Rot13IO.new(dst0)
          ret = IO.copy_stream(src, dst, 3)
          assert_equal(3, ret)
        }
        assert_equal("irk", File.read("baz"))
      }
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_rot13_to_io
    mkcdtmpdir {
      File.open("bar", "w") {|f| f << "flap" }
      File.open("bar") {|src0|
        src = Rot13IO.new(src0)
        File.open("baz", "w") {|dst|
          ret = IO.copy_stream(src, dst, 4)
          assert_equal(4, ret)
        }
      }
      assert_equal("sync", File.read("baz"))
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_rot13_to_rot13
    mkcdtmpdir {
      File.open("bar", "w") {|f| f << "bin" }
      File.open("bar") {|src0|
        src = Rot13IO.new(src0)
        File.open("baz", "w") {|dst0|
          dst = Rot13IO.new(dst0)
          ret = IO.copy_stream(src, dst, 3)
          assert_equal(3, ret)
        }
      }
      assert_equal("bin", File.read("baz"))
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_strio_flush
    with_pipe {|r, w|
      w.sync = false
      w.write "zz"
      src = StringIO.new("abcd")
      IO.copy_stream(src, w)
      t1 = Thread.new {
        w.close
      }
      t2 = Thread.new { r.read }
      _, result = assert_join_threads([t1, t2])
      assert_equal("zzabcd", result)
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_strio_rbuf
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w << "abcd"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal("a", r.read(1))
      sio = StringIO.new
      IO.copy_stream(r, sio)
      assert_equal("bcd", sio.string)
    end)
  end

  def test_copy_stream_src_wbuf
    mkcdtmpdir {
      pipe(proc do |w|
        File.open("foe", "w+") {|f|
          f.write "abcd\n"
          f.rewind
          f.write "xy"
          IO.copy_stream(f, w)
        }
        assert_equal("xycd\n", File.read("foe"))
        w.close
      end, proc do |r|
        assert_equal("cd\n", r.read)
        r.close
      end)
    }
  end

  class Bug5237
    attr_reader :count
    def initialize
      @count = 0
    end

    def read(bytes, buffer)
      @count += 1
      buffer.replace "this is a test"
      nil
    end
  end

  def test_copy_stream_broken_src_read_eof
    src = Bug5237.new
    dst = StringIO.new
    assert_equal 0, src.count
    th = Thread.new { IO.copy_stream(src, dst) }
    flunk("timeout") unless th.join(10)
    assert_equal 1, src.count
  end

  def test_copy_stream_dst_rbuf
    mkcdtmpdir {
      pipe(proc do |w|
        w << "xyz"
        w.close
      end, proc do |r|
        File.open("fom", "w+b") {|f|
          f.write "abcd\n"
          f.rewind
          assert_equal("abc", f.read(3))
          f.ungetc "c"
          IO.copy_stream(r, f)
        }
        assert_equal("abxyz", File.read("fom"))
      end)
    }
  end

  def test_copy_stream_to_duplex_io
    result = IO.pipe {|a,w|
      th = Thread.start {w.puts "yes"; w.close}
      IO.popen([EnvUtil.rubybin, '-pe$_="#$.:#$_"'], "r+") {|b|
        IO.copy_stream(a, b)
        b.close_write
        assert_join_threads([th])
        b.read
      }
    }
    assert_equal("1:yes\n", result)
  end

  def ruby(*args)
    args = ['-e', '$>.write($<.read)'] if args.empty?
    ruby = EnvUtil.rubybin
    opts = {}
    if defined?(Process::RLIMIT_NPROC)
      lim = Process.getrlimit(Process::RLIMIT_NPROC)[1]
      opts[:rlimit_nproc] = [lim, 2048].min
    end
    f = IO.popen([ruby] + args, 'r+', opts)
    pid = f.pid
    yield(f)
  ensure
    f.close unless !f || f.closed?
    begin
      Process.wait(pid)
    rescue Errno::ECHILD, Errno::ESRCH
    end
  end

  def test_try_convert
    assert_equal(STDOUT, IO.try_convert(STDOUT))
    assert_equal(nil, IO.try_convert("STDOUT"))
  end

  def test_ungetc2
    f = false
    pipe(proc do |w|
      Thread.pass until f
      w.write("1" * 10000)
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      r.ungetc("0" * 10000)
      f = true
      assert_equal("0" * 10000 + "1" * 10000, r.read)
    end)
  end

  def test_write_with_multiple_arguments
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.write("foo", "bar")
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal("foobar", r.read)
    end)
  end

  def test_write_with_multiple_arguments_and_buffer
    mkcdtmpdir do
      line = "x"*9+"\n"
      file = "test.out"
      open(file, "wb") do |w|
        w.write(line)
        assert_equal(11, w.write(line, "\n"))
      end
      open(file, "rb") do |r|
        assert_equal([line, line, "\n"], r.readlines)
      end

      line = "x"*99+"\n"
      open(file, "wb") do |w|
        w.write(line*81)        # 8100 bytes
        assert_equal(100, w.write("a"*99, "\n"))
      end
      open(file, "rb") do |r|
        81.times {assert_equal(line, r.gets)}
        assert_equal("a"*99+"\n", r.gets)
      end
    end
  end

  def test_write_with_many_arguments
    [1023, 1024].each do |n|
      pipe(proc do |w|
        w.write(*(["a"] * n))
        w.close
      end, proc do |r|
        assert_equal("a" * n, r.read)
      end)
    end
  end

  def test_write_with_multiple_nonstring_arguments
    assert_in_out_err([], "STDOUT.write(:foo, :bar)", ["foobar"])
  end

  def test_write_buffered_with_multiple_arguments
    out, err, (_, status) = EnvUtil.invoke_ruby(["-e", "sleep 0.1;puts 'foo'"], "", true, true) do |_, o, e, i|
      [o.read, e.read, Process.waitpid2(i)]
    end
    assert_predicate(status, :success?)
    assert_equal("foo\n", out)
    assert_empty(err)
  end

  def test_write_no_args
    IO.pipe do |r, w|
      assert_equal 0, w.write, '[ruby-core:86285] [Bug #14338]'
      assert_equal :wait_readable, r.read_nonblock(1, exception: false)
    end
  end

  def test_write_non_writable
    with_pipe do |r, w|
      assert_raise(IOError) do
        r.write "foobarbaz"
      end
    end
  end

  def test_dup
    ruby do |f|
      begin
        f2 = f.dup
        f.puts "foo"
        f2.puts "bar"
        f.close_write
        f2.close_write
        assert_equal("foo\nbar\n", f.read)
        assert_equal("", f2.read)
      ensure
        f2.close
      end
    end
  end

  def test_dup_many
    opts = {}
    opts[:rlimit_nofile] = 1024 if defined?(Process::RLIMIT_NOFILE)
    assert_separately([], <<-'End', opts)
      a = []
      assert_raise(Errno::EMFILE, Errno::ENFILE, Errno::ENOMEM) do
        loop {a << IO.pipe}
      end
      assert_raise(Errno::EMFILE, Errno::ENFILE, Errno::ENOMEM) do
        loop {a << [a[-1][0].dup, a[-1][1].dup]}
      end
    End
  end

  def test_inspect
    with_pipe do |r, w|
      assert_match(/^#<IO:fd \d+>$/, r.inspect)
      r.freeze
      assert_match(/^#<IO:fd \d+>$/, r.inspect)
    end
  end

  def test_readpartial
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.write "foobarbaz"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_raise(ArgumentError) { r.readpartial(-1) }
      assert_equal("fooba", r.readpartial(5))
      r.readpartial(5, s = "")
      assert_equal("rbaz", s)
    end)
  end

  def test_readpartial_lock
    with_pipe do |r, w|
      s = ""
      t = Thread.new { r.readpartial(5, s) }
      Thread.pass until t.stop?
      assert_raise(RuntimeError) { s.clear }
      w.write "foobarbaz"
      w.close
      assert_equal("fooba", t.value)
    end
  end

  def test_readpartial_pos
    mkcdtmpdir {
      open("foo", "w") {|f| f << "abc" }
      open("foo") {|f|
        f.seek(0)
        assert_equal("ab", f.readpartial(2))
        assert_equal(2, f.pos)
      }
    }
  end

  def test_readpartial_with_not_empty_buffer
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.write "foob"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      r.readpartial(5, s = "01234567")
      assert_equal("foob", s)
    end)
  end

  def test_readpartial_buffer_error
    with_pipe do |r, w|
      s = ""
      t = Thread.new { r.readpartial(5, s) }
      Thread.pass until t.stop?
      t.kill
      t.value
      assert_equal("", s)
    end
  end if /cygwin/ !~ RUBY_PLATFORM

  def test_read
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.write "foobarbaz"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_raise(ArgumentError) { r.read(-1) }
      assert_equal("fooba", r.read(5))
      r.read(nil, s = "")
      assert_equal("rbaz", s)
    end)
  end

  def test_read_lock
    with_pipe do |r, w|
      s = ""
      t = Thread.new { r.read(5, s) }
      Thread.pass until t.stop?
      assert_raise(RuntimeError) { s.clear }
      w.write "foobarbaz"
      w.close
      assert_equal("fooba", t.value)
    end
  end

  def test_read_with_not_empty_buffer
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.write "foob"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      r.read(nil, s = "01234567")
      assert_equal("foob", s)
    end)
  end

  def test_read_buffer_error
    with_pipe do |r, w|
      s = ""
      t = Thread.new { r.read(5, s) }
      Thread.pass until t.stop?
      t.kill
      t.value
      assert_equal("", s)
    end
    with_pipe do |r, w|
      s = "xxx"
      t = Thread.new {r.read(2, s)}
      Thread.pass until t.stop?
      t.kill
      t.value
      assert_equal("xxx", s)
    end
  end if /cygwin/ !~ RUBY_PLATFORM

  def test_write_nonblock
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.write_nonblock(1)
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal("1", r.read)
    end)
  end

  def test_read_nonblock_with_not_empty_buffer
    with_pipe {|r, w|
      w.write "foob"
      w.close
      r.read_nonblock(5, s = "01234567")
      assert_equal("foob", s)
    }
  end

  def test_write_nonblock_simple_no_exceptions
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.write_nonblock('1', exception: false)
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal("1", r.read)
    end)
  end

  def test_read_nonblock_error
    with_pipe {|r, w|
      begin
        r.read_nonblock 4096
      rescue Errno::EWOULDBLOCK
        assert_kind_of(IO::WaitReadable, $!)
      end
    }

    with_pipe {|r, w|
      begin
        r.read_nonblock 4096, ""
      rescue Errno::EWOULDBLOCK
        assert_kind_of(IO::WaitReadable, $!)
      end
    }
  end if have_nonblock?

  def test_read_nonblock_no_exceptions
    with_pipe {|r, w|
      assert_equal :wait_readable, r.read_nonblock(4096, exception: false)
      w.puts "HI!"
      assert_equal "HI!\n", r.read_nonblock(4096, exception: false)
      w.close
      assert_equal nil, r.read_nonblock(4096, exception: false)
    }
  end if have_nonblock?

  def test_read_nonblock_with_buffer_no_exceptions
    with_pipe {|r, w|
      assert_equal :wait_readable, r.read_nonblock(4096, "", exception: false)
      w.puts "HI!"
      buf = "buf"
      value = r.read_nonblock(4096, buf, exception: false)
      assert_equal value, "HI!\n"
      assert_same(buf, value)
      w.close
      assert_equal nil, r.read_nonblock(4096, "", exception: false)
    }
  end if have_nonblock?

  def test_write_nonblock_error
    with_pipe {|r, w|
      begin
        loop {
          w.write_nonblock "a"*100000
        }
      rescue Errno::EWOULDBLOCK
        assert_kind_of(IO::WaitWritable, $!)
      end
    }
  end if have_nonblock?

  def test_write_nonblock_no_exceptions
    with_pipe {|r, w|
      loop {
        ret = w.write_nonblock("a"*100000, exception: false)
        if ret.is_a?(Symbol)
          assert_equal :wait_writable, ret
          break
        end
      }
    }
  end if have_nonblock?

  def test_gets
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.write "foobarbaz"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal("", r.gets(0))
      assert_equal("foobarbaz", r.gets(9))
    end)
  end

  def test_close_read
    ruby do |f|
      f.close_read
      f.write "foobarbaz"
      assert_raise(IOError) { f.read }
      assert_nothing_raised(IOError) {f.close_read}
      assert_nothing_raised(IOError) {f.close}
      assert_nothing_raised(IOError) {f.close_read}
    end
  end

  def test_close_read_pipe
    with_pipe do |r, w|
      r.close_read
      assert_raise(Errno::EPIPE) { w.write "foobarbaz" }
      assert_nothing_raised(IOError) {r.close_read}
      assert_nothing_raised(IOError) {r.close}
      assert_nothing_raised(IOError) {r.close_read}
    end
  end

  def test_write_epipe_nosync
    assert_separately([], <<-"end;")
      r, w = IO.pipe
      r.close
      w.sync = false
      assert_raise(Errno::EPIPE) {
        loop { w.write "a" }
      }
    end;
  end

  def test_close_read_non_readable
    with_pipe do |r, w|
      assert_raise(IOError) do
        w.close_read
      end
    end
  end

  def test_close_write
    ruby do |f|
      f.write "foobarbaz"
      f.close_write
      assert_equal("foobarbaz", f.read)
      assert_nothing_raised(IOError) {f.close_write}
      assert_nothing_raised(IOError) {f.close}
      assert_nothing_raised(IOError) {f.close_write}
    end
  end

  def test_close_write_non_readable
    with_pipe do |r, w|
      assert_raise(IOError) do
        r.close_write
      end
    end
  end

  def test_close_read_write_separately
    bug = '[ruby-list:49598]'
    (1..10).each do |i|
      assert_nothing_raised(IOError, "#{bug} trying ##{i}") do
        IO.popen(EnvUtil.rubybin, "r+") {|f|
          th = Thread.new {f.close_write}
          f.close_read
          th.join
        }
      end
    end
  end

  def test_pid
    IO.pipe {|r, w|
      assert_equal(nil, r.pid)
      assert_equal(nil, w.pid)
    }

    begin
      pipe = IO.popen(EnvUtil.rubybin, "r+")
      pid1 = pipe.pid
      pipe.puts "p $$"
      pipe.close_write
      pid2 = pipe.read.chomp.to_i
      assert_equal(pid2, pid1)
      assert_equal(pid2, pipe.pid)
    ensure
      pipe.close
    end
    assert_raise(IOError) { pipe.pid }
  end

  def test_pid_after_close_read
    pid1 = pid2 = nil
    IO.popen("exit ;", "r+") do |io|
      pid1 = io.pid
      io.close_read
      pid2 = io.pid
    end
    assert_not_nil(pid1)
    assert_equal(pid1, pid2)
  end

  def make_tempfile
    t = Tempfile.new("test_io")
    t.binmode
    t.puts "foo"
    t.puts "bar"
    t.puts "baz"
    t.close
    if block_given?
      begin
        yield t
      ensure
        t.close(true)
      end
    else
      t
    end
  end

  def test_set_lineno
    make_tempfile {|t|
      assert_separately(["-", t.path], <<-SRC)
        open(ARGV[0]) do |f|
          assert_equal(0, $.)
          f.gets; assert_equal(1, $.)
          f.gets; assert_equal(2, $.)
          f.lineno = 1000; assert_equal(2, $.)
          f.gets; assert_equal(1001, $.)
          f.gets; assert_equal(1001, $.)
          f.rewind; assert_equal(1001, $.)
          f.gets; assert_equal(1, $.)
          f.gets; assert_equal(2, $.)
          f.gets; assert_equal(3, $.)
          f.gets; assert_equal(3, $.)
        end
      SRC

      pipe(proc do |w|
        w.puts "foo"
        w.puts "bar"
        w.puts "baz"
        w.close
      end, proc do |r|
        r.gets; assert_equal(1, $.)
        r.gets; assert_equal(2, $.)
        r.lineno = 1000; assert_equal(2, $.)
        r.gets; assert_equal(1001, $.)
        r.gets; assert_equal(1001, $.)
      end)
    }
  end

  def test_readline
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.puts "foo"
      w.puts "bar"
      w.puts "baz"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      r.readline; assert_equal(1, $.)
      r.readline; assert_equal(2, $.)
      r.lineno = 1000; assert_equal(2, $.)
      r.readline; assert_equal(1001, $.)
      assert_raise(EOFError) { r.readline }
    end)
  end

  def test_each_char
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.puts "foo"
      w.puts "bar"
      w.puts "baz"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      a = []
      r.each_char {|c| a << c }
      assert_equal(%w(f o o) + ["\n"] + %w(b a r) + ["\n"] + %w(b a z) + ["\n"], a)
    end)
  end

  def test_lines
    verbose, $VERBOSE = $VERBOSE, nil
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.puts "foo"
      w.puts "bar"
      w.puts "baz"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      e = nil
      assert_warn(/deprecated/) {
        e = r.lines
      }
      assert_equal("foo\n", e.next)
      assert_equal("bar\n", e.next)
      assert_equal("baz\n", e.next)
      assert_raise(StopIteration) { e.next }
    end)
  ensure
    $VERBOSE = verbose
  end

  def test_bytes
    verbose, $VERBOSE = $VERBOSE, nil
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.binmode
      w.puts "foo"
      w.puts "bar"
      w.puts "baz"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      e = nil
      assert_warn(/deprecated/) {
        e = r.bytes
      }
      (%w(f o o) + ["\n"] + %w(b a r) + ["\n"] + %w(b a z) + ["\n"]).each do |c|
        assert_equal(c.ord, e.next)
      end
      assert_raise(StopIteration) { e.next }
    end)
  ensure
    $VERBOSE = verbose
  end

  def test_chars
    verbose, $VERBOSE = $VERBOSE, nil
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.puts "foo"
      w.puts "bar"
      w.puts "baz"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      e = nil
      assert_warn(/deprecated/) {
        e = r.chars
      }
      (%w(f o o) + ["\n"] + %w(b a r) + ["\n"] + %w(b a z) + ["\n"]).each do |c|
        assert_equal(c, e.next)
      end
      assert_raise(StopIteration) { e.next }
    end)
  ensure
    $VERBOSE = verbose
  end

  def test_readbyte
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.binmode
      w.puts "foo"
      w.puts "bar"
      w.puts "baz"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      r.binmode
      (%w(f o o) + ["\n"] + %w(b a r) + ["\n"] + %w(b a z) + ["\n"]).each do |c|
        assert_equal(c.ord, r.readbyte)
      end
      assert_raise(EOFError) { r.readbyte }
    end)
  end

  def test_readchar
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.puts "foo"
      w.puts "bar"
      w.puts "baz"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      (%w(f o o) + ["\n"] + %w(b a r) + ["\n"] + %w(b a z) + ["\n"]).each do |c|
        assert_equal(c, r.readchar)
      end
      assert_raise(EOFError) { r.readchar }
    end)
  end

  def test_close_on_exec
    ruby do |f|
      assert_equal(true, f.close_on_exec?)
      f.close_on_exec = false
      assert_equal(false, f.close_on_exec?)
      f.close_on_exec = true
      assert_equal(true, f.close_on_exec?)
      f.close_on_exec = false
      assert_equal(false, f.close_on_exec?)
    end

    with_pipe do |r, w|
      assert_equal(true, r.close_on_exec?)
      r.close_on_exec = false
      assert_equal(false, r.close_on_exec?)
      r.close_on_exec = true
      assert_equal(true, r.close_on_exec?)
      r.close_on_exec = false
      assert_equal(false, r.close_on_exec?)

      assert_equal(true, w.close_on_exec?)
      w.close_on_exec = false
      assert_equal(false, w.close_on_exec?)
      w.close_on_exec = true
      assert_equal(true, w.close_on_exec?)
      w.close_on_exec = false
      assert_equal(false, w.close_on_exec?)
    end
  end if have_close_on_exec?

  def test_pos
    make_tempfile {|t|
      open(t.path, IO::RDWR|IO::CREAT|IO::TRUNC, 0600) do |f|
        f.write "Hello"
        assert_equal(5, f.pos)
      end
      open(t.path, IO::RDWR|IO::CREAT|IO::TRUNC, 0600) do |f|
        f.sync = true
        f.read
        f.write "Hello"
        assert_equal(5, f.pos)
      end
    }
  end

  def test_pos_with_getc
    _bug6179 = '[ruby-core:43497]'
    make_tempfile {|t|
      ["", "t", "b"].each do |mode|
        open(t.path, "w#{mode}") do |f|
          f.write "0123456789\n"
        end

        open(t.path, "r#{mode}") do |f|
          assert_equal 0, f.pos, "mode=r#{mode}"
          assert_equal '0', f.getc, "mode=r#{mode}"
          assert_equal 1, f.pos, "mode=r#{mode}"
          assert_equal '1', f.getc, "mode=r#{mode}"
          assert_equal 2, f.pos, "mode=r#{mode}"
          assert_equal '2', f.getc, "mode=r#{mode}"
          assert_equal 3, f.pos, "mode=r#{mode}"
          assert_equal '3', f.getc, "mode=r#{mode}"
          assert_equal 4, f.pos, "mode=r#{mode}"
          assert_equal '4', f.getc, "mode=r#{mode}"
        end
      end
    }
  end

  def can_seek_data(f)
    if /linux/ =~ RUBY_PLATFORM
      require "-test-/file"
      # lseek(2)
      case Bug::File::Fs.fsname(f.path)
      when "btrfs"
        return true if (Etc.uname[:release].split('.').map(&:to_i) <=> [3,1]) >= 0
      when "ocfs"
        return true if (Etc.uname[:release].split('.').map(&:to_i) <=> [3,2]) >= 0
      when "xfs"
        return true if (Etc.uname[:release].split('.').map(&:to_i) <=> [3,5]) >= 0
      when "ext4"
        return true if (Etc.uname[:release].split('.').map(&:to_i) <=> [3,8]) >= 0
      when "tmpfs"
        return true if (Etc.uname[:release].split('.').map(&:to_i) <=> [3,8]) >= 0
      end
    end
    false
  end

  def test_seek
    make_tempfile {|t|
      open(t.path) { |f|
        f.seek(9)
        assert_equal("az\n", f.read)
      }

      open(t.path) { |f|
        f.seek(9, IO::SEEK_SET)
        assert_equal("az\n", f.read)
      }

      open(t.path) { |f|
        f.seek(-4, IO::SEEK_END)
        assert_equal("baz\n", f.read)
      }

      open(t.path) { |f|
        assert_equal("foo\n", f.gets)
        f.seek(2, IO::SEEK_CUR)
        assert_equal("r\nbaz\n", f.read)
      }

      if defined?(IO::SEEK_DATA)
        open(t.path) { |f|
          break unless can_seek_data(f)
          assert_equal("foo\n", f.gets)
          f.seek(0, IO::SEEK_DATA)
          assert_equal("foo\nbar\nbaz\n", f.read)
        }
        open(t.path, 'r+') { |f|
          break unless can_seek_data(f)
          f.seek(100*1024, IO::SEEK_SET)
          f.print("zot\n")
          f.seek(50*1024, IO::SEEK_DATA)
          assert_operator(f.pos, :>=, 50*1024)
          assert_match(/\A\0*zot\n\z/, f.read)
        }
      end

      if defined?(IO::SEEK_HOLE)
        open(t.path) { |f|
          break unless can_seek_data(f)
          assert_equal("foo\n", f.gets)
          f.seek(0, IO::SEEK_HOLE)
          assert_operator(f.pos, :>, 20)
          f.seek(100*1024, IO::SEEK_HOLE)
          assert_equal("", f.read)
        }
      end
    }
  end

  def test_seek_symwhence
    make_tempfile {|t|
      open(t.path) { |f|
        f.seek(9, :SET)
        assert_equal("az\n", f.read)
      }

      open(t.path) { |f|
        f.seek(-4, :END)
        assert_equal("baz\n", f.read)
      }

      open(t.path) { |f|
        assert_equal("foo\n", f.gets)
        f.seek(2, :CUR)
        assert_equal("r\nbaz\n", f.read)
      }

      if defined?(IO::SEEK_DATA)
        open(t.path) { |f|
          break unless can_seek_data(f)
          assert_equal("foo\n", f.gets)
          f.seek(0, :DATA)
          assert_equal("foo\nbar\nbaz\n", f.read)
        }
        open(t.path, 'r+') { |f|
          break unless can_seek_data(f)
          f.seek(100*1024, :SET)
          f.print("zot\n")
          f.seek(50*1024, :DATA)
          assert_operator(f.pos, :>=, 50*1024)
          assert_match(/\A\0*zot\n\z/, f.read)
        }
      end

      if defined?(IO::SEEK_HOLE)
        open(t.path) { |f|
          break unless can_seek_data(f)
          assert_equal("foo\n", f.gets)
          f.seek(0, :HOLE)
          assert_operator(f.pos, :>, 20)
          f.seek(100*1024, :HOLE)
          assert_equal("", f.read)
        }
      end
    }
  end

  def test_sysseek
    make_tempfile {|t|
      open(t.path) do |f|
        f.sysseek(-4, IO::SEEK_END)
        assert_equal("baz\n", f.read)
      end

      open(t.path) do |f|
        a = [f.getc, f.getc, f.getc]
        a.reverse_each {|c| f.ungetc c }
        assert_raise(IOError) { f.sysseek(1) }
      end
    }
  end

  def test_syswrite
    make_tempfile {|t|
      open(t.path, "w") do |f|
        o = Object.new
        def o.to_s; "FOO\n"; end
        f.syswrite(o)
      end
      assert_equal("FOO\n", File.read(t.path))
    }
  end

  def test_sysread
    make_tempfile {|t|
      open(t.path) do |f|
        a = [f.getc, f.getc, f.getc]
        a.reverse_each {|c| f.ungetc c }
        assert_raise(IOError) { f.sysread(1) }
      end
    }
  end

  def test_sysread_with_not_empty_buffer
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.write "foob"
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      r.sysread( 5, s = "01234567" )
      assert_equal( "foob", s )
    end)
  end

  def test_flag
    make_tempfile {|t|
      assert_raise(ArgumentError) do
        open(t.path, "z") { }
      end

      assert_raise(ArgumentError) do
        open(t.path, "rr") { }
      end

      assert_raise(ArgumentError) do
        open(t.path, "rbt") { }
      end
    }
  end

  def test_sysopen
    make_tempfile {|t|
      fd = IO.sysopen(t.path)
      assert_kind_of(Integer, fd)
      f = IO.for_fd(fd)
      assert_equal("foo\nbar\nbaz\n", f.read)
      f.close

      fd = IO.sysopen(t.path, "w", 0666)
      assert_kind_of(Integer, fd)
      if defined?(Fcntl::F_GETFL)
        f = IO.for_fd(fd)
      else
        f = IO.for_fd(fd, 0666)
      end
      f.write("FOO\n")
      f.close

      fd = IO.sysopen(t.path, "r")
      assert_kind_of(Integer, fd)
      f = IO.for_fd(fd)
      assert_equal("FOO\n", f.read)
      f.close
    }
  end

  def try_fdopen(fd, autoclose = true, level = 50)
    if level > 0
      begin
        1.times {return try_fdopen(fd, autoclose, level - 1)}
      ensure
        GC.start
      end
    else
      WeakRef.new(IO.for_fd(fd, autoclose: autoclose))
    end
  end

  def test_autoclose
    feature2250 = '[ruby-core:26222]'
    pre = 'ft2250'

    Dir.mktmpdir {|d|
      t = open("#{d}/#{pre}", "w")
      f = IO.for_fd(t.fileno)
      assert_equal(true, f.autoclose?)
      f.autoclose = false
      assert_equal(false, f.autoclose?)
      f.close
      assert_nothing_raised(Errno::EBADF, feature2250) {t.close}

      t = open("#{d}/#{pre}", "w")
      f = IO.for_fd(t.fileno, autoclose: false)
      assert_equal(false, f.autoclose?)
      f.autoclose = true
      assert_equal(true, f.autoclose?)
      f.close
      assert_raise(Errno::EBADF, feature2250) {t.close}
    }
  end

  def test_autoclose_true_closed_by_finalizer
    if RubyVM::MJIT.enabled?
      # This is skipped but this test passes with AOT mode.
      # At least it should not be a JIT compiler's bug.
      skip "MJIT worker does IO which is unexpected for this test"
    end

    feature2250 = '[ruby-core:26222]'
    pre = 'ft2250'
    t = Tempfile.new(pre)
    w = try_fdopen(t.fileno)
    begin
      w.close
      begin
        t.close
      rescue Errno::EBADF
      end
      skip "expect IO object was GC'ed but not recycled yet"
    rescue WeakRef::RefError
      assert_raise(Errno::EBADF, feature2250) {t.close}
    end
  ensure
    t&.close!
  end

  def test_autoclose_false_closed_by_finalizer
    feature2250 = '[ruby-core:26222]'
    pre = 'ft2250'
    t = Tempfile.new(pre)
    w = try_fdopen(t.fileno, false)
    begin
      w.close
      t.close
      skip "expect IO object was GC'ed but not recycled yet"
    rescue WeakRef::RefError
      assert_nothing_raised(Errno::EBADF, feature2250) {t.close}
    end
  ensure
    t.close!
  end

  def test_open_redirect
    o = Object.new
    def o.to_open; self; end
    assert_equal(o, open(o))
    o2 = nil
    open(o) do |f|
      o2 = f
    end
    assert_equal(o, o2)
  end

  def test_open_pipe
    open("|" + EnvUtil.rubybin, "r+") do |f|
      f.puts "puts 'foo'"
      f.close_write
      assert_equal("foo\n", f.read)
    end
  end

  def test_read_command
    assert_equal("foo\n", IO.read("|echo foo"))
    assert_raise(Errno::ENOENT, Errno::EINVAL) do
      File.read("|#{EnvUtil.rubybin} -e puts")
    end
    assert_raise(Errno::ENOENT, Errno::EINVAL) do
      File.binread("|#{EnvUtil.rubybin} -e puts")
    end
    assert_raise(Errno::ENOENT, Errno::EINVAL) do
      Class.new(IO).read("|#{EnvUtil.rubybin} -e puts")
    end
    assert_raise(Errno::ENOENT, Errno::EINVAL) do
      Class.new(IO).binread("|#{EnvUtil.rubybin} -e puts")
    end
  end

  def test_reopen
    make_tempfile {|t|
      open(__FILE__) do |f|
        f.gets
        assert_nothing_raised {
          f.reopen(t.path)
          assert_equal("foo\n", f.gets)
        }
      end

      open(__FILE__) do |f|
        f.gets
        f2 = open(t.path)
        begin
          f2.gets
          assert_nothing_raised {
            f.reopen(f2)
            assert_equal("bar\n", f.gets, '[ruby-core:24240]')
          }
        ensure
          f2.close
        end
      end

      open(__FILE__) do |f|
        f2 = open(t.path)
        begin
          f.reopen(f2)
          assert_equal("foo\n", f.gets)
          assert_equal("bar\n", f.gets)
          f.reopen(f2)
          assert_equal("baz\n", f.gets, '[ruby-dev:39479]')
        ensure
          f2.close
        end
      end
    }
  end

  def test_reopen_inherit
    mkcdtmpdir {
      system(EnvUtil.rubybin, '-e', <<-"End")
        f = open("out", "w")
        STDOUT.reopen(f)
        STDERR.reopen(f)
        system(#{EnvUtil.rubybin.dump}, '-e', 'STDOUT.print "out"')
        system(#{EnvUtil.rubybin.dump}, '-e', 'STDERR.print "err"')
      End
      assert_equal("outerr", File.read("out"))
    }
  end

  def test_reopen_stdio
    mkcdtmpdir {
      fname = 'bug11319'
      File.write(fname, 'hello')
      system(EnvUtil.rubybin, '-e', "STDOUT.reopen('#{fname}', 'w+')")
      assert_equal('', File.read(fname))
    }
  end

  def test_reopen_mode
    feature7067 = '[ruby-core:47694]'
    make_tempfile {|t|
      open(__FILE__) do |f|
        assert_nothing_raised {
          f.reopen(t.path, "r")
          assert_equal("foo\n", f.gets)
        }
      end

      open(__FILE__) do |f|
        assert_nothing_raised(feature7067) {
          f.reopen(t.path, File::RDONLY)
          assert_equal("foo\n", f.gets)
        }
      end
    }
  end

  def test_reopen_opt
    feature7103 = '[ruby-core:47806]'
    make_tempfile {|t|
      open(__FILE__) do |f|
        assert_nothing_raised(feature7103) {
          f.reopen(t.path, "r", binmode: true)
        }
        assert_equal("foo\n", f.gets)
      end

      open(__FILE__) do |f|
        assert_nothing_raised(feature7103) {
          f.reopen(t.path, autoclose: false)
        }
        assert_equal("foo\n", f.gets)
      end
    }
  end

  def make_tempfile_for_encoding
    t = make_tempfile
    open(t.path, "rb+:utf-8") {|f| f.puts "\u7d05\u7389bar\n"}
    if block_given?
      yield t
    else
      t
    end
  ensure
    t&.close(true) if block_given?
  end

  def test_reopen_encoding
    make_tempfile_for_encoding {|t|
      open(__FILE__) {|f|
        f.reopen(t.path, "r:utf-8")
        s = f.gets
        assert_equal(Encoding::UTF_8, s.encoding)
        assert_equal("\u7d05\u7389bar\n", s)
      }

      open(__FILE__) {|f|
        f.reopen(t.path, "r:UTF-8:EUC-JP")
        s = f.gets
        assert_equal(Encoding::EUC_JP, s.encoding)
        assert_equal("\xB9\xC8\xB6\xCCbar\n".force_encoding(Encoding::EUC_JP), s)
      }
    }
  end

  def test_reopen_opt_encoding
    feature7103 = '[ruby-core:47806]'
    make_tempfile_for_encoding {|t|
      open(__FILE__) {|f|
        assert_nothing_raised(feature7103) {f.reopen(t.path, encoding: "ASCII-8BIT")}
        s = f.gets
        assert_equal(Encoding::ASCII_8BIT, s.encoding)
        assert_equal("\xe7\xb4\x85\xe7\x8e\x89bar\n", s)
      }

      open(__FILE__) {|f|
        assert_nothing_raised(feature7103) {f.reopen(t.path, encoding: "UTF-8:EUC-JP")}
        s = f.gets
        assert_equal(Encoding::EUC_JP, s.encoding)
        assert_equal("\xB9\xC8\xB6\xCCbar\n".force_encoding(Encoding::EUC_JP), s)
      }
    }
  end

  bug11320 = '[ruby-core:69780] [Bug #11320]'
  ["UTF-8", "EUC-JP", "Shift_JIS"].each do |enc|
    define_method("test_reopen_nonascii(#{enc})") do
      mkcdtmpdir do
        fname = "\u{30eb 30d3 30fc}".encode(enc)
        File.write(fname, '')
        assert_file.exist?(fname)
        stdin = $stdin.dup
        begin
          assert_nothing_raised(Errno::ENOENT, "#{bug11320}: #{enc}") {
            $stdin.reopen(fname, 'r')
          }
        ensure
          $stdin.reopen(stdin)
          stdin.close
        end
      end
    end
  end

  def test_foreach
    a = []
    IO.foreach("|" + EnvUtil.rubybin + " -e 'puts :foo; puts :bar; puts :baz'") {|x| a << x }
    assert_equal(["foo\n", "bar\n", "baz\n"], a)

    a = []
    IO.foreach("|" + EnvUtil.rubybin + " -e 'puts :zot'", :open_args => ["r"]) {|x| a << x }
    assert_equal(["zot\n"], a)

    make_tempfile {|t|
      a = []
      IO.foreach(t.path) {|x| a << x }
      assert_equal(["foo\n", "bar\n", "baz\n"], a)

      a = []
      IO.foreach(t.path, {:mode => "r" }) {|x| a << x }
      assert_equal(["foo\n", "bar\n", "baz\n"], a)

      a = []
      IO.foreach(t.path, {:open_args => [] }) {|x| a << x }
      assert_equal(["foo\n", "bar\n", "baz\n"], a)

      a = []
      IO.foreach(t.path, {:open_args => ["r"] }) {|x| a << x }
      assert_equal(["foo\n", "bar\n", "baz\n"], a)

      a = []
      IO.foreach(t.path, "b") {|x| a << x }
      assert_equal(["foo\nb", "ar\nb", "az\n"], a)

      a = []
      IO.foreach(t.path, 3) {|x| a << x }
      assert_equal(["foo", "\n", "bar", "\n", "baz", "\n"], a)

      a = []
      IO.foreach(t.path, "b", 3) {|x| a << x }
      assert_equal(["foo", "\nb", "ar\n", "b", "az\n"], a)

      bug = '[ruby-dev:31525]'
      assert_raise(ArgumentError, bug) {IO.foreach}

      a = nil
      assert_nothing_raised(ArgumentError, bug) {a = IO.foreach(t.path).to_a}
      assert_equal(["foo\n", "bar\n", "baz\n"], a, bug)

      bug6054 = '[ruby-dev:45267]'
      assert_raise_with_message(IOError, /not opened for reading/, bug6054) do
        IO.foreach(t.path, mode:"w").next
      end
    }
  end

  def test_s_readlines
    make_tempfile {|t|
      assert_equal(["foo\n", "bar\n", "baz\n"], IO.readlines(t.path))
      assert_equal(["foo\nb", "ar\nb", "az\n"], IO.readlines(t.path, "b"))
      assert_equal(["fo", "o\n", "ba", "r\n", "ba", "z\n"], IO.readlines(t.path, 2))
      assert_equal(["fo", "o\n", "b", "ar", "\nb", "az", "\n"], IO.readlines(t.path, "b", 2))
    }
  end

  def test_printf
    pipe(proc do |w|
      printf(w, "foo %s baz\n", "bar")
      w.close_write
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal("foo bar baz\n", r.read)
    end)
  end

  def test_print
    make_tempfile {|t|
      assert_in_out_err(["-", t.path],
                        "print while $<.gets",
                        %w(foo bar baz), [])
    }
  end

  def test_print_separators
    $, = ':'
    $\ = "\n"
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.print('a')
      w.print('a','b','c')
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal("a\n", r.gets)
      assert_equal("a:b:c\n", r.gets)
      assert_nil r.gets
      r.close
    end)
  ensure
    $, = nil
    $\ = nil
  end

  def test_putc
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.putc "A"
      w.putc "BC"
      w.putc 68
      w.close_write
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal("ABD", r.read)
    end)

    assert_in_out_err([], "putc 65", %w(A), [])
  end

  def test_puts_recursive_array
    a = ["foo"]
    a << a
    pipe(proc do |w|
      w.puts a
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal("foo\n[...]\n", r.read)
    end)
  end

  def test_puts_parallel
    skip "not portable"
    pipe(proc do |w|
      threads = []
      100.times do
        threads << Thread.new { w.puts "hey" }
      end
      threads.each(&:join)
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal("hey\n" * 100, r.read)
    end)
  end

  def test_puts_old_write
    capture = String.new
    def capture.write(str)
      self << str
    end

    capture.clear
    assert_warning(/[.#]write is outdated/) do
      stdout, $stdout = $stdout, capture
      puts "hey"
    ensure
      $stdout = stdout
    end
    assert_equal("hey\n", capture)
  end

  def test_display
    pipe(proc do |w|
      "foo".display(w)
      w.close
    end, proc do |r|
      assert_equal("foo", r.read)
    end)

    assert_in_out_err([], "'foo'.display", %w(foo), [])
  end

  def test_set_stdout
    assert_raise(TypeError) { $> = Object.new }

    assert_in_out_err([], "$> = $stderr\nputs 'foo'", [], %w(foo))

    assert_separately(%w[-Eutf-8], "#{<<~"begin;"}\n#{<<~"end;"}")
    begin;
      alias $\u{6a19 6e96 51fa 529b} $stdout
      x = eval("class X\u{307b 3052}; self; end".encode("euc-jp"))
      assert_raise_with_message(TypeError, /\\$\u{6a19 6e96 51fa 529b} must.*, X\u{307b 3052} given/) do
        $\u{6a19 6e96 51fa 529b} = x.new
      end
    end;
  end

  def test_initialize
    return unless defined?(Fcntl::F_GETFL)

    make_tempfile {|t|
      fd = IO.sysopen(t.path, "w")
      assert_kind_of(Integer, fd)
      %w[r r+ w+ a+].each do |mode|
        assert_raise(Errno::EINVAL, "#{mode} [ruby-dev:38571]") {IO.new(fd, mode)}
      end
      f = IO.new(fd, "w")
      f.write("FOO\n")
      f.close

      assert_equal("FOO\n", File.read(t.path))
    }
  end

  def test_reinitialize
    make_tempfile {|t|
      f = open(t.path)
      begin
        assert_raise(RuntimeError) do
          f.instance_eval { initialize }
        end
      ensure
        f.close
      end
    }
  end

  def test_new_with_block
    assert_in_out_err([], "r, w = IO.pipe; r.autoclose=false; IO.new(r.fileno) {}.close", [], /^.+$/)
    n = "IO\u{5165 51fa 529b}"
    c = eval("class #{n} < IO; self; end")
    IO.pipe do |r, w|
      assert_warning(/#{n}/) {
        r.autoclose=false
        io = c.new(r.fileno) {}
        io.close
      }
    end
  end

  def test_readline2
    assert_in_out_err(["-e", <<-SRC], "foo\nbar\nbaz\n", %w(foo bar baz end), [])
      puts readline
      puts readline
      puts readline
      begin
        puts readline
      rescue EOFError
        puts "end"
      end
    SRC
  end

  def test_readlines
    assert_in_out_err(["-e", "p readlines"], "foo\nbar\nbaz\n",
                      ["[\"foo\\n\", \"bar\\n\", \"baz\\n\"]"], [])
  end

  def test_s_read
    make_tempfile {|t|
      assert_equal("foo\nbar\nbaz\n", File.read(t.path))
      assert_equal("foo\nba", File.read(t.path, 6))
      assert_equal("bar\n", File.read(t.path, 4, 4))
    }
  end

  def test_uninitialized
    assert_raise(IOError) { IO.allocate.print "" }
  end

  def test_nofollow
    # O_NOFOLLOW is not standard.
    mkcdtmpdir {
      open("file", "w") {|f| f << "content" }
      begin
        File.symlink("file", "slnk")
      rescue NotImplementedError
        return
      end
      assert_raise(Errno::EMLINK, Errno::ELOOP) {
        open("slnk", File::RDONLY|File::NOFOLLOW) {}
      }
      assert_raise(Errno::EMLINK, Errno::ELOOP) {
        File.foreach("slnk", :open_args=>[File::RDONLY|File::NOFOLLOW]) {}
      }
    }
  end if /freebsd|linux/ =~ RUBY_PLATFORM and defined? File::NOFOLLOW

  def test_tainted
    make_tempfile {|t|
      assert_predicate(File.read(t.path, 4), :tainted?, '[ruby-dev:38826]')
      assert_predicate(File.open(t.path) {|f| f.read(4)}, :tainted?, '[ruby-dev:38826]')
    }
  end

  def test_binmode_after_closed
    make_tempfile {|t|
      assert_raise(IOError) {t.binmode}
    }
  end

  def test_DATA_binmode
    assert_separately([], <<-SRC)
assert_not_predicate(DATA, :binmode?)
__END__
    SRC
  end

  def test_threaded_flush
    bug3585 = '[ruby-core:31348]'
    src = "#{<<~"begin;"}\n#{<<~'end;'}"
    begin;
      t = Thread.new { sleep 3 }
      Thread.new {sleep 1; t.kill; p 'hi!'}
      t.join
    end;
    10.times.map do
      Thread.start do
        assert_in_out_err([], src, timeout: 20) {|stdout, stderr|
          assert_no_match(/hi.*hi/, stderr.join, bug3585)
        }
      end
    end.each {|th| th.join}
  end

  def test_flush_in_finalizer1
    bug3910 = '[ruby-dev:42341]'
    tmp = Tempfile.open("bug3910") {|t|
      path = t.path
      t.close
      fds = []
      assert_nothing_raised(TypeError, bug3910) do
        500.times {
          f = File.open(path, "w")
          f.instance_variable_set(:@test_flush_in_finalizer1, true)
          fds << f.fileno
          f.print "hoge"
        }
      end
      t
    }
  ensure
    ObjectSpace.each_object(File) {|f|
      if f.instance_variables.include?(:@test_flush_in_finalizer1)
        f.close
      end
    }
    tmp.close!
  end

  def test_flush_in_finalizer2
    bug3910 = '[ruby-dev:42341]'
    Tempfile.open("bug3910") {|t|
      path = t.path
      t.close
      begin
        1.times do
          io = open(path,"w")
          io.instance_variable_set(:@test_flush_in_finalizer2, true)
          io.print "hoge"
        end
        assert_nothing_raised(TypeError, bug3910) do
          GC.start
        end
      ensure
        ObjectSpace.each_object(File) {|f|
          if f.instance_variables.include?(:@test_flush_in_finalizer2)
            f.close
          end
        }
      end
      t.close!
    }
  end

  def test_readlines_limit_0
    bug4024 = '[ruby-dev:42538]'
    make_tempfile {|t|
      open(t.path, "r") do |io|
        assert_raise(ArgumentError, bug4024) do
          io.readlines(0)
        end
      end
    }
  end

  def test_each_line_limit_0
    bug4024 = '[ruby-dev:42538]'
    make_tempfile {|t|
      open(t.path, "r") do |io|
        assert_raise(ArgumentError, bug4024) do
          io.each_line(0).next
        end
      end
    }
  end

  def os_and_fs(path)
    uname = Etc.uname
    os = "#{uname[:sysname]} #{uname[:release]}"

    fs = nil
    if uname[:sysname] == 'Linux'
      # [ruby-dev:45703] Old Linux's fadvise() doesn't work on tmpfs.
      mount = `mount`
      mountpoints = []
      mount.scan(/ on (\S+) type (\S+) /) {
        mountpoints << [$1, $2]
      }
      mountpoints.sort_by {|mountpoint, fstype| mountpoint.length }.reverse_each {|mountpoint, fstype|
        if path == mountpoint
          fs = fstype
          break
        end
        mountpoint += "/" if %r{/\z} !~ mountpoint
        if path.start_with?(mountpoint)
          fs = fstype
          break
        end
      }
    end

    if fs
      "#{fs} on #{os}"
    else
      os
    end
  end

  def test_advise
    make_tempfile {|tf|
      assert_raise(ArgumentError, "no arguments") { tf.advise }
      %w{normal random sequential willneed dontneed noreuse}.map(&:to_sym).each do |adv|
        [[0,0], [0, 20], [400, 2]].each do |offset, len|
          open(tf.path) do |t|
            ret = assert_nothing_raised(lambda { os_and_fs(tf.path) }) {
              begin
                t.advise(adv, offset, len)
              rescue Errno::EINVAL => e
                if /linux/ =~ RUBY_PLATFORM && (Etc.uname[:release].split('.').map(&:to_i) <=> [3,6]) < 0
                  next # [ruby-core:65355] tmpfs is not supported
                else
                  raise e
                end
              end
            }
            assert_nil(ret)
            assert_raise(ArgumentError, "superfluous arguments") do
              t.advise(adv, offset, len, offset)
            end
            assert_raise(TypeError, "wrong type for first argument") do
              t.advise(adv.to_s, offset, len)
            end
            assert_raise(TypeError, "wrong type for last argument") do
              t.advise(adv, offset, Array(len))
            end
            assert_raise(RangeError, "last argument too big") do
              t.advise(adv, offset, 9999e99)
            end
          end
          assert_raise(IOError, "closed file") do
            make_tempfile {|tf2|
              tf2.advise(adv.to_sym, offset, len)
            }
          end
        end
      end
    }
  end

  def test_invalid_advise
    feature4204 = '[ruby-dev:42887]'
    make_tempfile {|tf|
      %W{Normal rand glark will_need zzzzzzzzzzzz \u2609}.map(&:to_sym).each do |adv|
        [[0,0], [0, 20], [400, 2]].each do |offset, len|
          open(tf.path) do |t|
            assert_raise_with_message(NotImplementedError, /#{Regexp.quote(adv.inspect)}/, feature4204) { t.advise(adv, offset, len) }
          end
        end
      end
    }
  end

  def test_fcntl_lock_linux
    pad = 0
    Tempfile.create(self.class.name) do |f|
      r, w = IO.pipe
      pid = fork do
        r.close
        lock = [Fcntl::F_WRLCK, IO::SEEK_SET, pad, 12, 34, 0].pack("s!s!i!L!L!i!")
        f.fcntl Fcntl::F_SETLKW, lock
        w.syswrite "."
        sleep
      end
      w.close
      assert_equal ".", r.read(1)
      r.close
      pad = 0
      getlock = [Fcntl::F_WRLCK, 0, pad, 0, 0, 0].pack("s!s!i!L!L!i!")
      f.fcntl Fcntl::F_GETLK, getlock

      ptype, whence, pad, start, len, lockpid = getlock.unpack("s!s!i!L!L!i!")

      assert_equal(ptype, Fcntl::F_WRLCK)
      assert_equal(whence, IO::SEEK_SET)
      assert_equal(start, 12)
      assert_equal(len, 34)
      assert_equal(pid, lockpid)

      Process.kill :TERM, pid
      Process.waitpid2(pid)
    end
  end if /x86_64-linux/ =~ RUBY_PLATFORM and # A binary form of struct flock depend on platform
    [nil].pack("p").bytesize == 8 # unless x32 platform.

  def test_fcntl_lock_freebsd
    start = 12
    len = 34
    sysid = 0
    Tempfile.create(self.class.name) do |f|
      r, w = IO.pipe
      pid = fork do
        r.close
        lock = [start, len, 0, Fcntl::F_WRLCK, IO::SEEK_SET, sysid].pack("qqis!s!i!")
        f.fcntl Fcntl::F_SETLKW, lock
        w.syswrite "."
        sleep
      end
      w.close
      assert_equal ".", r.read(1)
      r.close

      getlock = [0, 0, 0, Fcntl::F_WRLCK, 0, 0].pack("qqis!s!i!")
      f.fcntl Fcntl::F_GETLK, getlock

      start, len, lockpid, ptype, whence, sysid = getlock.unpack("qqis!s!i!")

      assert_equal(ptype, Fcntl::F_WRLCK)
      assert_equal(whence, IO::SEEK_SET)
      assert_equal(start, 12)
      assert_equal(len, 34)
      assert_equal(pid, lockpid)

      Process.kill :TERM, pid
      Process.waitpid2(pid)
    end
  end if /freebsd/ =~ RUBY_PLATFORM # A binary form of struct flock depend on platform

  def test_fcntl_dupfd
    Tempfile.create(self.class.name) do |f|
      fd = f.fcntl(Fcntl::F_DUPFD, 63)
      begin
        assert_operator(fd, :>=, 63)
      ensure
        IO.for_fd(fd).close
      end
    end
  end

  def test_cross_thread_close_fd
    with_pipe do |r,w|
      read_thread = Thread.new do
        begin
          r.read(1)
        rescue => e
          e
        end
      end

      sleep(0.1) until read_thread.stop?
      r.close
      read_thread.join
      assert_kind_of(IOError, read_thread.value)
    end
  end

  def test_cross_thread_close_stdio
    assert_separately([], <<-'end;')
      IO.pipe do |r,w|
        $stdin.reopen(r)
        r.close
        read_thread = Thread.new do
          begin
            $stdin.read(1)
          rescue IOError => e
            e
          end
        end
        sleep(0.1) until read_thread.stop?
        $stdin.close
        assert_kind_of(IOError, read_thread.value)
      end
    end;
  end

  def test_single_exception_on_close
    a = []
    t = []
    10.times do
      r, w = IO.pipe
      a << [r, w]
      t << Thread.new do
        while r.gets
        end rescue IOError
        Thread.current.pending_interrupt?
      end
    end
    a.each do |r, w|
      w.write(-"\n")
      w.close
      r.close
    end
    t.each do |th|
      assert_equal false, th.value, '[ruby-core:81581] [Bug #13632]'
    end
  end

  def test_open_mode
    feature4742 = "[ruby-core:36338]"
    bug6055 = '[ruby-dev:45268]'

    mkcdtmpdir do
      assert_not_nil(f = File.open('symbolic', 'w'))
      f.close
      assert_not_nil(f = File.open('numeric',  File::WRONLY|File::TRUNC|File::CREAT))
      f.close
      assert_not_nil(f = File.open('hash-symbolic', :mode => 'w'))
      f.close
      assert_not_nil(f = File.open('hash-numeric', :mode => File::WRONLY|File::TRUNC|File::CREAT), feature4742)
      f.close
      assert_nothing_raised(bug6055) {f = File.open('hash-symbolic', binmode: true)}
      f.close
    end
  end

  def test_s_write
    mkcdtmpdir do
      path = "test_s_write"
      File.write(path, "foo\nbar\nbaz")
      assert_equal("foo\nbar\nbaz", File.read(path))
      File.write(path, "FOO", 0)
      assert_equal("FOO\nbar\nbaz", File.read(path))
      File.write(path, "BAR")
      assert_equal("BAR", File.read(path))
      File.write(path, "\u{3042}", mode: "w", encoding: "EUC-JP")
      assert_equal("\u{3042}".encode("EUC-JP"), File.read(path, encoding: "EUC-JP"))
      File.delete path
      assert_equal(6, File.write(path, 'string', 2))
      File.delete path
      assert_raise(Errno::EINVAL) { File.write('nonexisting','string', -2) }
      assert_equal(6, File.write(path, 'string'))
      assert_equal(3, File.write(path, 'sub', 1))
      assert_equal("ssubng", File.read(path))
      File.delete path
      assert_equal(3, File.write(path, "foo", encoding: "UTF-8"))
      File.delete path
      assert_equal(3, File.write(path, "foo", 0, encoding: "UTF-8"))
      assert_equal("foo", File.read(path))
      assert_equal(1, File.write(path, "f", 1, encoding: "UTF-8"))
      assert_equal("ffo", File.read(path))
      File.delete path
      assert_equal(1, File.write(path, "f", 1, encoding: "UTF-8"))
      assert_equal("\00f", File.read(path))
      assert_equal(1, File.write(path, "f", 0, encoding: "UTF-8"))
      assert_equal("ff", File.read(path))
      assert_raise(TypeError) {
        File.write(path, "foo", Object.new => Object.new)
      }
    end
  end

  def test_s_binread_does_not_leak_with_invalid_offset
    assert_raise(Errno::EINVAL) { IO.binread(__FILE__, 0, -1) }
  end

  def test_s_binwrite
    mkcdtmpdir do
      path = "test_s_binwrite"
      File.binwrite(path, "foo\nbar\nbaz")
      assert_equal("foo\nbar\nbaz", File.read(path))
      File.binwrite(path, "FOO", 0)
      assert_equal("FOO\nbar\nbaz", File.read(path))
      File.binwrite(path, "BAR")
      assert_equal("BAR", File.read(path))
      File.binwrite(path, "\u{3042}")
      assert_equal("\u{3042}".force_encoding("ASCII-8BIT"), File.binread(path))
      File.delete path
      assert_equal(6, File.binwrite(path, 'string', 2))
      File.delete path
      assert_equal(6, File.binwrite(path, 'string'))
      assert_equal(3, File.binwrite(path, 'sub', 1))
      assert_equal("ssubng", File.binread(path))
      assert_equal(6, File.size(path))
      assert_raise(Errno::EINVAL) { File.binwrite('nonexisting', 'string', -2) }
      assert_nothing_raised(TypeError) { File.binwrite(path, "string", mode: "w", encoding: "EUC-JP") }
    end
  end

  def test_race_between_read
    Tempfile.create("test") {|file|
      begin
        path = file.path
        file.close
        write_file = File.open(path, "wt")
        read_file = File.open(path, "rt")

        threads = []
        10.times do |i|
          threads << Thread.new {write_file.print(i)}
          threads << Thread.new {read_file.read}
        end
        assert_join_threads(threads)
        assert(true, "[ruby-core:37197]")
      ensure
        read_file.close
        write_file.close
      end
    }
  end

  def test_warn
    assert_warning "warning\n" do
      warn "warning"
    end

    assert_warning '' do
      warn
    end

    assert_warning "[Feature #5029]\n[ruby-core:38070]\n" do
      warn "[Feature #5029]", "[ruby-core:38070]"
    end
  end

  def test_cloexec
    return unless defined? Fcntl::FD_CLOEXEC
    open(__FILE__) {|f|
      assert_predicate(f, :close_on_exec?)
      g = f.dup
      begin
        assert_predicate(g, :close_on_exec?)
        f.reopen(g)
        assert_predicate(f, :close_on_exec?)
      ensure
        g.close
      end
      g = IO.new(f.fcntl(Fcntl::F_DUPFD))
      begin
        assert_predicate(g, :close_on_exec?)
      ensure
        g.close
      end
    }
    IO.pipe {|r,w|
      assert_predicate(r, :close_on_exec?)
      assert_predicate(w, :close_on_exec?)
    }
  end

  def test_ioctl_linux
    # Alpha, mips, sparc and ppc have an another ioctl request number scheme.
    # So, hardcoded 0x80045200 may fail.
    assert_nothing_raised do
      File.open('/dev/urandom'){|f1|
        entropy_count = ""
        # RNDGETENTCNT(0x80045200) mean "get entropy count".
        f1.ioctl(0x80045200, entropy_count)
      }
    end

    buf = ''
    assert_nothing_raised do
      fionread = 0x541B
      File.open(__FILE__){|f1|
        f1.ioctl(fionread, buf)
      }
    end
    assert_equal(File.size(__FILE__), buf.unpack('i!')[0])
  end if /^(?:i.?86|x86_64)-linux/ =~ RUBY_PLATFORM

  def test_ioctl_linux2
    return unless STDIN.tty? # stdin is not a terminal
    begin
      f = File.open('/dev/tty')
    rescue Errno::ENOENT, Errno::ENXIO => e
      skip e.message
    else
      tiocgwinsz=0x5413
      winsize=""
      assert_nothing_raised {
        f.ioctl(tiocgwinsz, winsize)
      }
    ensure
      f&.close
    end
  end if /^(?:i.?86|x86_64)-linux/ =~ RUBY_PLATFORM

  def test_setpos
    mkcdtmpdir {
      File.open("tmp.txt", "wb") {|f|
        f.puts "a"
        f.puts "bc"
        f.puts "def"
      }
      pos1 = pos2 = pos3 = nil
      File.open("tmp.txt", "rb") {|f|
        assert_equal("a\n", f.gets)
        pos1 = f.pos
        assert_equal("bc\n", f.gets)
        pos2 = f.pos
        assert_equal("def\n", f.gets)
        pos3 = f.pos
        assert_equal(nil, f.gets)
      }
      File.open("tmp.txt", "rb") {|f|
        f.pos = pos1
        assert_equal("bc\n", f.gets)
        assert_equal("def\n", f.gets)
        assert_equal(nil, f.gets)
      }
      File.open("tmp.txt", "rb") {|f|
        f.pos = pos2
        assert_equal("def\n", f.gets)
        assert_equal(nil, f.gets)
      }
      File.open("tmp.txt", "rb") {|f|
        f.pos = pos3
        assert_equal(nil, f.gets)
      }
      File.open("tmp.txt", "rb") {|f|
        f.pos = File.size("tmp.txt")
        s = "not empty string        "
        assert_equal("", f.read(0,s))
      }
    }
  end

  def test_std_fileno
    assert_equal(0, STDIN.fileno)
    assert_equal(1, STDOUT.fileno)
    assert_equal(2, STDERR.fileno)
    assert_equal(0, $stdin.fileno)
    assert_equal(1, $stdout.fileno)
    assert_equal(2, $stderr.fileno)
  end

  def test_frozen_fileno
    bug9865 = '[ruby-dev:48241] [Bug #9865]'
    with_pipe do |r,w|
      fd = r.fileno
      assert_equal(fd, r.freeze.fileno, bug9865)
    end
  end

  def test_frozen_autoclose
    with_pipe do |r,w|
      assert_equal(true, r.freeze.autoclose?)
    end
  end

  def test_sysread_locktmp
    bug6099 = '[ruby-dev:45297]'
    buf = " " * 100
    data = "a" * 100
    with_pipe do |r,w|
      th = Thread.new {r.sysread(100, buf)}
      Thread.pass until th.stop?
      buf.replace("")
      assert_empty(buf, bug6099)
      w.write(data)
      Thread.pass while th.alive?
      th.join
    end
    assert_equal(data, buf, bug6099)
  end

  def test_readpartial_locktmp
    bug6099 = '[ruby-dev:45297]'
    buf = " " * 100
    data = "a" * 100
    th = nil
    with_pipe do |r,w|
      r.nonblock = true
      th = Thread.new {r.readpartial(100, buf)}

      Thread.pass until th.stop?

      assert_equal 100, buf.bytesize

      begin
        buf.replace("")
      rescue RuntimeError => e
        assert_match(/can't modify string; temporarily locked/, e.message)
        Thread.pass
      end until buf.empty?

      assert_empty(buf, bug6099)
      assert_predicate(th, :alive?)
      w.write(data)
      Thread.pass while th.alive?
      th.join
    end
    assert_equal(data, buf, bug6099)
  end

  def test_advise_pipe
    # we don't know if other platforms have a real posix_fadvise()
    with_pipe do |r,w|
      # Linux 2.6.15 and earlier returned EINVAL instead of ESPIPE
      assert_raise(Errno::ESPIPE, Errno::EINVAL) {
        r.advise(:willneed) or skip "fadvise(2) is not implemented"
      }
      assert_raise(Errno::ESPIPE, Errno::EINVAL) {
        w.advise(:willneed) or skip "fadvise(2) is not implemented"
      }
    end
  end if /linux/ =~ RUBY_PLATFORM

  def assert_buffer_not_raise_shared_string_error
    bug6764 = '[ruby-core:46586]'
    bug9847 = '[ruby-core:62643] [Bug #9847]'
    size = 28
    data = [*"a".."z", *"A".."Z"].shuffle.join("")
    t = Tempfile.new("test_io")
    t.write(data)
    t.close
    w = []
    assert_nothing_raised(RuntimeError, bug6764) do
      buf = ''
      File.open(t.path, "r") do |r|
        while yield(r, size, buf)
          w << buf.dup
        end
      end
    end
    assert_equal(data, w.join(""), bug9847)
  ensure
    t.close!
  end

  def test_read_buffer_not_raise_shared_string_error
    assert_buffer_not_raise_shared_string_error do |r, size, buf|
      r.read(size, buf)
    end
  end

  def test_sysread_buffer_not_raise_shared_string_error
    assert_buffer_not_raise_shared_string_error do |r, size, buf|
      begin
        r.sysread(size, buf)
      rescue EOFError
        nil
      end
    end
  end

  def test_readpartial_buffer_not_raise_shared_string_error
    assert_buffer_not_raise_shared_string_error do |r, size, buf|
      begin
        r.readpartial(size, buf)
      rescue EOFError
        nil
      end
    end
  end

  def test_puts_recursive_ary
    bug5986 = '[ruby-core:42444]'
    c = Class.new {
      def to_ary
        [self]
      end
    }
    s = StringIO.new
    s.puts(c.new)
    assert_equal("[...]\n", s.string, bug5986)
  end

  def test_io_select_with_many_files
    bug8080 = '[ruby-core:53349]'

    assert_normal_exit %q{
      require "tempfile"

      # Unfortunately, ruby doesn't export FD_SETSIZE. then we assume it's 1024.
      fd_setsize = 1024

      # try to raise RLIM_NOFILE to >FD_SETSIZE
      begin
        Process.setrlimit(Process::RLIMIT_NOFILE, fd_setsize+20)
      rescue Errno::EPERM
        exit 0
      end

      tempfiles = []
      (0..fd_setsize+1).map {|i|
        tempfiles << Tempfile.open("test_io_select_with_many_files")
      }

      IO.select(tempfiles)
    }, bug8080, timeout: 50
  end if defined?(Process::RLIMIT_NOFILE)

  def test_read_32bit_boundary
    bug8431 = '[ruby-core:55098] [Bug #8431]'
    make_tempfile {|t|
      assert_separately(["-", bug8431, t.path], <<-"end;")
        msg = ARGV.shift
        f = open(ARGV[0], "rb")
        f.seek(0xffff_ffff)
        assert_nil(f.read(1), msg)
      end;
    }
  end if /mswin|mingw/ =~ RUBY_PLATFORM

  def test_write_32bit_boundary
    bug8431 = '[ruby-core:55098] [Bug #8431]'
    make_tempfile {|t|
      def t.close(unlink_now = false)
        # TODO: Tempfile should deal with this delay on Windows?
        # NOTE: re-opening with O_TEMPORARY does not work.
        path = self.path
        ret = super
        if unlink_now
          begin
            File.unlink(path)
          rescue Errno::ENOENT
          rescue Errno::EACCES
            sleep(2)
            retry
          end
        end
        ret
      end

      begin
        assert_separately(["-", bug8431, t.path], <<-"end;", timeout: 30)
          msg = ARGV.shift
          f = open(ARGV[0], "wb")
          f.seek(0xffff_ffff)
          begin
            # this will consume very long time or fail by ENOSPC on a
            # filesystem which sparse file is not supported
            f.write('1')
            pos = f.tell
          rescue Errno::ENOSPC
            skip "non-sparse file system"
          rescue SystemCallError
          else
            assert_equal(0x1_0000_0000, pos, msg)
          end
        end;
      rescue Timeout::Error
        skip "Timeout because of slow file writing"
      end
    }
  end if /mswin|mingw/ =~ RUBY_PLATFORM

  def test_read_unlocktmp_ensure
    bug8669 = '[ruby-core:56121] [Bug #8669]'

    str = ""
    IO.pipe {|r,|
      t = Thread.new {
        assert_raise(RuntimeError) {
          r.read(nil, str)
        }
      }
      sleep 0.1 until t.stop?
      t.raise
      sleep 0.1 while t.alive?
      assert_nothing_raised(RuntimeError, bug8669) { str.clear }
      t.join
    }
  end if /cygwin/ !~ RUBY_PLATFORM

  def test_readpartial_unlocktmp_ensure
    bug8669 = '[ruby-core:56121] [Bug #8669]'

    str = ""
    IO.pipe {|r, w|
      t = Thread.new {
        assert_raise(RuntimeError) {
          r.readpartial(4096, str)
        }
      }
      sleep 0.1 until t.stop?
      t.raise
      sleep 0.1 while t.alive?
      assert_nothing_raised(RuntimeError, bug8669) { str.clear }
      t.join
    }
  end if /cygwin/ !~ RUBY_PLATFORM

  def test_readpartial_bad_args
    IO.pipe do |r, w|
      w.write '.'
      buf = String.new
      assert_raise(ArgumentError) { r.readpartial(1, buf, exception: false) }
      assert_raise(TypeError) { r.readpartial(1, exception: false) }
      assert_equal [[r],[],[]], IO.select([r], nil, nil, 1)
      assert_equal '.', r.readpartial(1)
    end
  end

  def test_sysread_unlocktmp_ensure
    bug8669 = '[ruby-core:56121] [Bug #8669]'

    str = ""
    IO.pipe {|r, w|
      t = Thread.new {
        assert_raise(RuntimeError) {
          r.sysread(4096, str)
        }
      }
      sleep 0.1 until t.stop?
      t.raise
      sleep 0.1 while t.alive?
      assert_nothing_raised(RuntimeError, bug8669) { str.clear }
      t.join
    }
  end if /cygwin/ !~ RUBY_PLATFORM

  def test_exception_at_close
    bug10153 = '[ruby-core:64463] [Bug #10153] exception in close at the end of block'
    assert_raise(Errno::EBADF, bug10153) do
      IO.pipe do |r, w|
        assert_nothing_raised {IO.open(w.fileno) {}}
      end
    end
  end

  def test_close_twice
    open(__FILE__) {|f|
      assert_equal(nil, f.close)
      assert_equal(nil, f.close)
    }
  end

  def test_close_uninitialized
    io = IO.allocate
    assert_raise(IOError) { io.close }
  end

  def test_open_fifo_does_not_block_other_threads
    mkcdtmpdir {
      File.mkfifo("fifo")
      assert_separately([], <<-'EOS')
        t1 = Thread.new {
          open("fifo", "r") {|r|
            r.read
          }
        }
        t2 = Thread.new {
          open("fifo", "w") {|w|
            w.write "foo"
          }
        }
        t1_value, _ = assert_join_threads([t1, t2])
        assert_equal("foo", t1_value)
      EOS
    }
  end if /mswin|mingw|bccwin|cygwin/ !~ RUBY_PLATFORM

  def test_open_flag
    make_tempfile do |t|
      assert_raise(Errno::EEXIST){ open(t.path, File::WRONLY|File::CREAT, flags: File::EXCL){} }
      assert_raise(Errno::EEXIST){ open(t.path, 'w', flags: File::EXCL){} }
      assert_raise(Errno::EEXIST){ open(t.path, mode: 'w', flags: File::EXCL){} }
    end
  end

  def test_open_flag_binary
    make_tempfile do |t|
      open(t.path, File::RDONLY, flags: File::BINARY) do |f|
        assert_equal true, f.binmode?
      end
      open(t.path, 'r', flags: File::BINARY) do |f|
        assert_equal true, f.binmode?
      end
      open(t.path, mode: 'r', flags: File::BINARY) do |f|
        assert_equal true, f.binmode?
      end
    end
  end if File::BINARY != 0

  def test_exclusive_mode
    make_tempfile do |t|
      assert_raise(Errno::EEXIST){ open(t.path, 'wx'){} }
      assert_raise(ArgumentError){ open(t.path, 'rx'){} }
      assert_raise(ArgumentError){ open(t.path, 'ax'){} }
    end
  end

  def test_race_gets_and_close
    opt = { signal: :ABRT, timeout: 200 }
    assert_separately([], "#{<<-"begin;"}\n#{<<-"end;"}", opt)
    bug13076 = '[ruby-core:78845] [Bug #13076]'
    begin;
      10.times do |i|
        a = []
        t = []
        10.times do
          r,w = IO.pipe
          a << [r,w]
          t << Thread.new do
            begin
              while r.gets
              end
            rescue IOError
            end
          end
        end
        a.each do |r,w|
          w.puts "hoge"
          w.close
          r.close
        end
        t.each do |th|
          assert_same(th, th.join(2), bug13076)
        end
      end
    end;
  end

  def test_race_closed_stream
    assert_separately([], "#{<<-"begin;"}\n#{<<-"end;"}")
    begin;
      bug13158 = '[ruby-core:79262] [Bug #13158]'
      closed = nil
      q = Queue.new
      IO.pipe do |r, w|
        thread = Thread.new do
          begin
            q << true
            assert_raise_with_message(IOError, /stream closed/) do
              while r.gets
              end
            end
          ensure
            closed = r.closed?
          end
        end
        q.pop
        sleep 0.01 until thread.stop?
        r.close
        thread.join
        assert_equal(true, closed, bug13158 + ': stream should be closed')
      end
    end;
  end

  if RUBY_ENGINE == "ruby" # implementation details
    def test_foreach_rs_conversion
      make_tempfile {|t|
        a = []
        rs = Struct.new(:count).new(0)
        def rs.to_str; self.count += 1; "\n"; end
        IO.foreach(t.path, rs) {|x| a << x }
        assert_equal(["foo\n", "bar\n", "baz\n"], a)
        assert_equal(1, rs.count)
      }
    end

    def test_foreach_rs_invalid
      make_tempfile {|t|
        rs = Object.new
        def rs.to_str; raise "invalid rs"; end
        assert_raise(RuntimeError) do
          IO.foreach(t.path, rs, mode:"w") {}
        end
        assert_equal(["foo\n", "bar\n", "baz\n"], IO.foreach(t.path).to_a)
      }
    end

    def test_foreach_limit_conversion
      make_tempfile {|t|
        a = []
        lim = Struct.new(:count).new(0)
        def lim.to_int; self.count += 1; -1; end
        IO.foreach(t.path, lim) {|x| a << x }
        assert_equal(["foo\n", "bar\n", "baz\n"], a)
        assert_equal(1, lim.count)
      }
    end

    def test_foreach_limit_invalid
      make_tempfile {|t|
        lim = Object.new
        def lim.to_int; raise "invalid limit"; end
        assert_raise(RuntimeError) do
          IO.foreach(t.path, lim, mode:"w") {}
        end
        assert_equal(["foo\n", "bar\n", "baz\n"], IO.foreach(t.path).to_a)
      }
    end

    def test_readlines_rs_invalid
      make_tempfile {|t|
        rs = Object.new
        def rs.to_str; raise "invalid rs"; end
        assert_raise(RuntimeError) do
          IO.readlines(t.path, rs, mode:"w")
        end
        assert_equal(["foo\n", "bar\n", "baz\n"], IO.readlines(t.path))
      }
    end

    def test_readlines_limit_invalid
      make_tempfile {|t|
        lim = Object.new
        def lim.to_int; raise "invalid limit"; end
        assert_raise(RuntimeError) do
          IO.readlines(t.path, lim, mode:"w")
        end
        assert_equal(["foo\n", "bar\n", "baz\n"], IO.readlines(t.path))
      }
    end

    def test_closed_stream_in_rescue
      assert_separately([], "#{<<-"begin;"}\n#{<<~"end;"}")
      begin;
      10.times do
        assert_nothing_raised(RuntimeError, /frozen IOError/) do
          IO.pipe do |r, w|
            th = Thread.start {r.close}
            r.gets
          rescue IOError
            # swallow pending exceptions
            begin
              sleep 0.001
            rescue IOError
              retry
            end
          ensure
            th.kill.join
          end
        end
      end
      end;
    end

    def test_write_no_garbage
      skip "multiple threads already active" if Thread.list.size > 1
      res = {}
      ObjectSpace.count_objects(res) # creates strings on first call
      [ 'foo'.b, '*' * 24 ].each do |buf|
        with_pipe do |r, w|
          GC.disable
          begin
            before = ObjectSpace.count_objects(res)[:T_STRING]
            n = w.write(buf)
            s = w.syswrite(buf)
            after = ObjectSpace.count_objects(res)[:T_STRING]
          ensure
            GC.enable
          end
          assert_equal before, after,
            "no strings left over after write [ruby-core:78898] [Bug #13085]: #{ before } strings before write -> #{ after } strings after write"
          assert_not_predicate buf, :frozen?, 'no inadvertent freeze'
          assert_equal buf.bytesize, n, 'IO#write wrote expected size'
          assert_equal s, n, 'IO#syswrite wrote expected size'
        end
      end
    end

    def test_pread
      make_tempfile { |t|
        open(t.path) do |f|
          assert_equal("bar", f.pread(3, 4))
          buf = "asdf"
          assert_equal("bar", f.pread(3, 4, buf))
          assert_equal("bar", buf)
          assert_raise(EOFError) { f.pread(1, f.size) }
        end
      }
    end if IO.method_defined?(:pread)

    def test_pwrite
      make_tempfile { |t|
        open(t.path, IO::RDWR) do |f|
          assert_equal(3, f.pwrite("ooo", 4))
          assert_equal("ooo", f.pread(3, 4))
        end
      }
    end if IO.method_defined?(:pread) and IO.method_defined?(:pwrite)
  end

  def test_select_exceptfds
    if Etc.uname[:sysname] == 'SunOS' && Etc.uname[:release] == '5.11'
      skip "Solaris 11 fails this"
    end

    TCPServer.open('localhost', 0) do |svr|
      con = TCPSocket.new('localhost', svr.addr[1])
      acc = svr.accept
      assert_equal 5, con.send('hello', Socket::MSG_OOB)
      set = IO.select(nil, nil, [acc], 30)
      assert_equal([[], [], [acc]], set, 'IO#select exceptions array OK')
      acc.close
      con.close
    end
  end if Socket.const_defined?(:MSG_OOB)

  def test_recycled_fd_close
    dot = -'.'
    IO.pipe do |sig_rd, sig_wr|
      noex = Thread.new do # everything right and never see exceptions :)
        until sig_rd.wait_readable(0)
          IO.pipe do |r, w|
            th = Thread.new { r.read(1) }
            w.write(dot)
            assert_same th, th.join(15), '"good" reader timeout'
            assert_equal(dot, th.value)
          end
        end
        sig_rd.read(4)
      end
      1000.times do |i| # stupid things and make exceptions:
        IO.pipe do |r,w|
          th = Thread.new do
            begin
              while r.gets
              end
            rescue IOError => e
              e
            end
          end
          Thread.pass until th.stop?
          assert_nil th.join(0.001)
          r.close
          assert_same th, th.join(30), '"bad" reader timeout'
          assert_match(/stream closed/, th.value.message)
        end
      end
      sig_wr.write 'done'
      assert_same noex, noex.join(20), '"good" writer timeout'
      assert_equal 'done', noex.value ,'r63216'
    end
  end

  def test_select_leak
    skip 'MJIT uses too much memory' if RubyVM::MJIT.enabled?
    # avoid malloc arena explosion from glibc and jemalloc:
    env = {
      'MALLOC_ARENA_MAX' => '1',
      'MALLOC_ARENA_TEST' => '1',
      'MALLOC_CONF' => 'narenas:1',
    }
    assert_no_memory_leak([env], <<-"end;", <<-"end;", rss: true, timeout: 60)
      r, w = IO.pipe
      rset = [r]
      wset = [w]
      exc = StandardError.new(-"select used to leak on exception")
      exc.set_backtrace([])
      Thread.new { IO.select(rset, wset, nil, 0) }.join
    end;
      th = Thread.new do
        begin
          IO.select(rset, wset)
        rescue
          retry
        end while true
      end
      50_000.times do
        Thread.pass until th.stop?
        th.raise(exc)
      end
      th.kill
      th.join
    end;
  end
end