summaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/test/matrix/test_matrix.rb
blob: 8125fb2bcb0b8fa67ea47679a66d0d22537f615f (plain)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
# frozen_string_literal: false
require 'test/unit'
require 'matrix'

class SubMatrix < Matrix
end

class TestMatrix < Test::Unit::TestCase
  def setup
    @m1 = Matrix[[1,2,3], [4,5,6]]
    @m2 = Matrix[[1,2,3], [4,5,6]]
    @m3 = @m1.clone
    @m4 = Matrix[[1.0, 2.0, 3.0], [4.0, 5.0, 6.0]]
    @n1 = Matrix[[2,3,4], [5,6,7]]
    @c1 = Matrix[[Complex(1,2), Complex(0,1), 0], [1, 2, 3]]
    @e1 = Matrix.empty(2,0)
    @e2 = Matrix.empty(0,3)
    @a3  = Matrix[[4, 1, -3], [0, 3, 7], [11, -4, 2]]
    @a5  = Matrix[[2, 0, 9, 3, 9], [8, 7, 0, 1, 9], [7, 5, 6, 6, 5], [0, 7, 8, 3, 0], [7, 8, 2, 3, 1]]
    @b3  = Matrix[[-7, 7, -10], [9, -3, -2], [-1, 3, 9]]
    @rot = Matrix[[0, -1, 0], [1, 0, 0], [0, 0, -1]]
  end

  def test_matrix
    assert_equal(1, @m1[0, 0])
    assert_equal(2, @m1[0, 1])
    assert_equal(3, @m1[0, 2])
    assert_equal(4, @m1[1, 0])
    assert_equal(5, @m1[1, 1])
    assert_equal(6, @m1[1, 2])
  end

  def test_identity
    assert_same @m1, @m1
    assert_not_same @m1, @m2
    assert_not_same @m1, @m3
    assert_not_same @m1, @m4
    assert_not_same @m1, @n1
  end

  def test_equality
    assert_equal @m1, @m1
    assert_equal @m1, @m2
    assert_equal @m1, @m3
    assert_equal @m1, @m4
    assert_not_equal @m1, @n1
  end

  def test_hash_equality
    assert @m1.eql?(@m1)
    assert @m1.eql?(@m2)
    assert @m1.eql?(@m3)
    assert !@m1.eql?(@m4)
    assert !@m1.eql?(@n1)

    hash = { @m1 => :value }
    assert hash.key?(@m1)
    assert hash.key?(@m2)
    assert hash.key?(@m3)
    assert !hash.key?(@m4)
    assert !hash.key?(@n1)
  end

  def test_hash
    assert_equal @m1.hash, @m1.hash
    assert_equal @m1.hash, @m2.hash
    assert_equal @m1.hash, @m3.hash
  end

  def test_uplus
    assert_equal(@m1, +@m1)
  end

  def test_negate
    assert_equal(Matrix[[-1, -2, -3], [-4, -5, -6]], -@m1)
    assert_equal(@m1, -(-@m1))
  end

  def test_rank
    [
      [[0]],
      [[0], [0]],
      [[0, 0], [0, 0]],
      [[0, 0], [0, 0], [0, 0]],
      [[0, 0, 0]],
      [[0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0]],
      [[0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0]],
      [[0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0]],
    ].each do |rows|
      assert_equal 0, Matrix[*rows].rank
    end

    [
      [[1], [0]],
      [[1, 0], [0, 0]],
      [[1, 0], [1, 0]],
      [[0, 0], [1, 0]],
      [[1, 0], [0, 0], [0, 0]],
      [[0, 0], [1, 0], [0, 0]],
      [[0, 0], [0, 0], [1, 0]],
      [[1, 0], [1, 0], [0, 0]],
      [[0, 0], [1, 0], [1, 0]],
      [[1, 0], [1, 0], [1, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0]],
      [[0, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0]],
      [[0, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0]],
      [[0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0]],
      [[0, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0]],

      [[1]],
      [[1], [1]],
      [[1, 1]],
      [[1, 1], [1, 1]],
      [[1, 1], [1, 1], [1, 1]],
      [[1, 1, 1]],
      [[1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1]],
      [[1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1]],
      [[1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1]],
    ].each do |rows|
      matrix = Matrix[*rows]
      assert_equal 1, matrix.rank
      assert_equal 1, matrix.transpose.rank
    end

    [
      [[1, 0], [0, 1]],
      [[1, 0], [0, 1], [0, 0]],
      [[1, 0], [0, 1], [0, 1]],
      [[1, 0], [0, 1], [1, 1]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 1]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0], [0, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 1], [0, 0, 0]],

      [[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0]],
      [[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 1]],

      [[1, 0], [1, 1]],
      [[1, 2], [1, 1]],
      [[1, 2], [0, 1], [1, 1]],
    ].each do |rows|
      m = Matrix[*rows]
      assert_equal 2, m.rank
      assert_equal 2, m.transpose.rank
    end

    [
      [[1, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0], [0, 0, 1]],
      [[1, 1, 0], [0, 1, 1], [1, 0, 1]],
      [[1, 1, 0], [0, 1, 1], [1, 0, 1]],
      [[1, 1, 0], [0, 1, 1], [1, 0, 1], [0, 0, 0]],
      [[1, 1, 0], [0, 1, 1], [1, 0, 1], [1, 1, 1]],
      [[1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 2], [1, 3, 1], [4, 1, 1]],
    ].each do |rows|
      m = Matrix[*rows]
      assert_equal 3, m.rank
      assert_equal 3, m.transpose.rank
    end
  end

  def test_inverse
    assert_equal(Matrix.empty(0, 0), Matrix.empty.inverse)
    assert_equal(Matrix[[-1, 1], [0, -1]], Matrix[[-1, -1], [0, -1]].inverse)
    assert_raise(ExceptionForMatrix::ErrDimensionMismatch) { @m1.inverse }
  end

  def test_determinant
    assert_equal(0, Matrix[[0,0],[0,0]].determinant)
    assert_equal(45, Matrix[[7,6], [3,9]].determinant)
    assert_equal(-18, Matrix[[2,0,1],[0,-2,2],[1,2,3]].determinant)
    assert_equal(-7, Matrix[[0,0,1],[0,7,6],[1,3,9]].determinant)
    assert_equal(42, Matrix[[7,0,1,0,12],[8,1,1,9,1],[4,0,0,-7,17],[-1,0,0,-4,8],[10,1,1,8,6]].determinant)
  end

  def test_new_matrix
    assert_raise(TypeError) { Matrix[Object.new] }
    o = Object.new
    def o.to_ary; [1,2,3]; end
    assert_equal(@m1, Matrix[o, [4,5,6]])
  end

  def test_round
    a = Matrix[[1.0111, 2.32320, 3.04343], [4.81, 5.0, 6.997]]
    b = Matrix[[1.01, 2.32, 3.04], [4.81, 5.0, 7.0]]
    assert_equal(a.round(2), b)
  end

  def test_rows
    assert_equal(@m1, Matrix.rows([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]))
  end

  def test_rows_copy
    rows1 = [[1], [1]]
    rows2 = [[1], [1]]

    m1 = Matrix.rows(rows1, copy = false)
    m2 = Matrix.rows(rows2, copy = true)

    rows1.uniq!
    rows2.uniq!

    assert_equal([[1]],      m1.to_a)
    assert_equal([[1], [1]], m2.to_a)
  end

  def test_to_matrix
    assert @m1.equal? @m1.to_matrix
  end

  def test_columns
    assert_equal(@m1, Matrix.columns([[1, 4], [2, 5], [3, 6]]))
  end

  def test_diagonal
    assert_equal(Matrix.empty(0, 0), Matrix.diagonal( ))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[3,0,0],[0,2,0],[0,0,1]], Matrix.diagonal(3, 2, 1))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[4,0,0,0],[0,3,0,0],[0,0,2,0],[0,0,0,1]], Matrix.diagonal(4, 3, 2, 1))
  end

  def test_scalar
    assert_equal(Matrix.empty(0, 0), Matrix.scalar(0, 1))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[2,0,0],[0,2,0],[0,0,2]], Matrix.scalar(3, 2))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[2,0,0,0],[0,2,0,0],[0,0,2,0],[0,0,0,2]], Matrix.scalar(4, 2))
  end

  def test_identity2
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1,0,0],[0,1,0],[0,0,1]], Matrix.identity(3))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1,0,0],[0,1,0],[0,0,1]], Matrix.unit(3))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1,0,0],[0,1,0],[0,0,1]], Matrix.I(3))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1,0,0,0],[0,1,0,0],[0,0,1,0],[0,0,0,1]], Matrix.identity(4))
  end

  def test_zero
    assert_equal(Matrix[[0,0,0],[0,0,0],[0,0,0]], Matrix.zero(3))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0]], Matrix.zero(4))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[0]], Matrix.zero(1))
  end

  def test_row_vector
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1,2,3,4]], Matrix.row_vector([1,2,3,4]))
  end

  def test_column_vector
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1],[2],[3],[4]], Matrix.column_vector([1,2,3,4]))
  end

  def test_empty
    m = Matrix.empty(2, 0)
    assert_equal(Matrix[ [], [] ], m)
    n = Matrix.empty(0, 3)
    assert_equal(Matrix.columns([ [], [], [] ]), n)
    assert_equal(Matrix[[0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0]], m * n)
  end

  def test_row
    assert_equal(Vector[1, 2, 3], @m1.row(0))
    assert_equal(Vector[4, 5, 6], @m1.row(1))
    a = []; @m1.row(0) {|x| a << x }
    assert_equal([1, 2, 3], a)
  end

  def test_column
    assert_equal(Vector[1, 4], @m1.column(0))
    assert_equal(Vector[2, 5], @m1.column(1))
    assert_equal(Vector[3, 6], @m1.column(2))
    a = []; @m1.column(0) {|x| a << x }
    assert_equal([1, 4], a)
  end

  def test_collect
    m1 = Matrix.zero(2,2)
    m2 = Matrix.build(3,4){|row, col| 1}

    assert_equal(Matrix[[5, 5, 5, 5], [5, 5, 5, 5], [5, 5, 5, 5]], m2.collect{|e| e * 5})
    assert_equal(Matrix[[7, 0],[0, 7]], m1.collect(:diagonal){|e| e + 7})
    assert_equal(Matrix[[0, 5],[5, 0]], m1.collect(:off_diagonal){|e| e + 5})
    assert_equal(Matrix[[8, 1, 1, 1], [8, 8, 1, 1], [8, 8, 8, 1]], m2.collect(:lower){|e| e + 7})
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1, 1, 1, 1], [-11, 1, 1, 1], [-11, -11, 1, 1]], m2.collect(:strict_lower){|e| e - 12})
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1, 1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1, 1]], m2.collect(:strict_upper){|e| e ** 2})
    assert_equal(Matrix[[-1, -1, -1, -1], [1, -1, -1, -1], [1, 1, -1, -1]], m2.collect(:upper){|e| -e})
    assert_raise(ArgumentError) {m1.collect(:test){|e| e + 7}}
    assert_not_equal(m2, m2.collect {|e| e * 2 })
  end

  def test_minor
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1, 2], [4, 5]], @m1.minor(0..1, 0..1))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[2], [5]], @m1.minor(0..1, 1..1))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[4, 5]], @m1.minor(1..1, 0..1))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1, 2], [4, 5]], @m1.minor(0, 2, 0, 2))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[4, 5]], @m1.minor(1, 1, 0, 2))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[2], [5]], @m1.minor(0, 2, 1, 1))
    assert_raise(ArgumentError) { @m1.minor(0) }
  end

  def test_first_minor
    assert_equal(Matrix.empty(0, 0), Matrix[[1]].first_minor(0, 0))
    assert_equal(Matrix.empty(0, 2), Matrix[[1, 4, 2]].first_minor(0, 1))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1, 3]], @m1.first_minor(1, 1))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[4, 6]], @m1.first_minor(0, 1))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1, 2]], @m1.first_minor(1, 2))
    assert_raise(RuntimeError) { Matrix.empty(0, 0).first_minor(0, 0) }
    assert_raise(ArgumentError) { @m1.first_minor(4, 0) }
    assert_raise(ArgumentError) { @m1.first_minor(0, -1) }
    assert_raise(ArgumentError) { @m1.first_minor(-1, 4) }
  end

  def test_cofactor
    assert_equal(1, Matrix[[1]].cofactor(0, 0))
    assert_equal(9, Matrix[[7,6],[3,9]].cofactor(0, 0))
    assert_equal(0, Matrix[[0,0],[0,0]].cofactor(0, 0))
    assert_equal(3, Matrix[[0,0,1],[0,7,6],[1,3,9]].cofactor(1, 0))
    assert_equal(-21, Matrix[[7,0,1,0,12],[8,1,1,9,1],[4,0,0,-7,17],[-1,0,0,-4,8],[10,1,1,8,6]].cofactor(2, 3))
    assert_raise(RuntimeError) { Matrix.empty(0, 0).cofactor(0, 0) }
    assert_raise(ArgumentError) { Matrix[[0,0],[0,0]].cofactor(-1, 4) }
    assert_raise(ExceptionForMatrix::ErrDimensionMismatch) { Matrix[[2,0,1],[0,-2,2]].cofactor(0, 0) }
  end

  def test_adjugate
    assert_equal(Matrix.empty, Matrix.empty.adjugate)
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1]], Matrix[[5]].adjugate)
    assert_equal(Matrix[[9,-6],[-3,7]], Matrix[[7,6],[3,9]].adjugate)
    assert_equal(Matrix[[45,3,-7],[6,-1,0],[-7,0,0]], Matrix[[0,0,1],[0,7,6],[1,3,9]].adjugate)
    assert_equal(Matrix.identity(5), (@a5.adjugate * @a5) / @a5.det)
    assert_equal(Matrix.I(3), Matrix.I(3).adjugate)
    assert_equal((@a3 * @b3).adjugate, @b3.adjugate * @a3.adjugate)
    assert_equal(4**(@a3.row_count-1) * @a3.adjugate, (4 * @a3).adjugate)
    assert_raise(ExceptionForMatrix::ErrDimensionMismatch) { @m1.adjugate }
  end

  def test_laplace_expansion
    assert_equal(1, Matrix[[1]].laplace_expansion(row: 0))
    assert_equal(45, Matrix[[7,6], [3,9]].laplace_expansion(row: 1))
    assert_equal(0, Matrix[[0,0],[0,0]].laplace_expansion(column: 0))
    assert_equal(-7, Matrix[[0,0,1],[0,7,6],[1,3,9]].laplace_expansion(column: 2))

    assert_equal(Vector[3, -2], Matrix[[Vector[1, 0], Vector[0, 1]], [2, 3]].laplace_expansion(row: 0))

    assert_raise(ExceptionForMatrix::ErrDimensionMismatch) { @m1.laplace_expansion(row: 1) }
    assert_raise(ArgumentError) { Matrix[[7,6], [3,9]].laplace_expansion() }
    assert_raise(ArgumentError) { Matrix[[7,6], [3,9]].laplace_expansion(foo: 1) }
    assert_raise(ArgumentError) { Matrix[[7,6], [3,9]].laplace_expansion(row: 1, column: 1) }
    assert_raise(ArgumentError) { Matrix[[7,6], [3,9]].laplace_expansion(row: 2) }
    assert_raise(ArgumentError) { Matrix[[0,0,1],[0,7,6],[1,3,9]].laplace_expansion(column: -1) }

    assert_raise(RuntimeError) { Matrix.empty(0, 0).laplace_expansion(row: 0) }
  end

  def test_regular?
    assert(Matrix[[1, 0], [0, 1]].regular?)
    assert(Matrix[[1, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0], [0, 0, 1]].regular?)
    assert(!Matrix[[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 1], [0, 0, 1]].regular?)
  end

  def test_singular?
    assert(!Matrix[[1, 0], [0, 1]].singular?)
    assert(!Matrix[[1, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0], [0, 0, 1]].singular?)
    assert(Matrix[[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 1], [0, 0, 1]].singular?)
  end

  def test_square?
    assert(Matrix[[1, 0], [0, 1]].square?)
    assert(Matrix[[1, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0], [0, 0, 1]].square?)
    assert(Matrix[[1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 1], [0, 0, 1]].square?)
    assert(!Matrix[[1, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0]].square?)
  end

  def test_mul
    assert_equal(Matrix[[2,4],[6,8]], Matrix[[2,4],[6,8]] * Matrix.I(2))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[4,8],[12,16]], Matrix[[2,4],[6,8]] * 2)
    assert_equal(Matrix[[4,8],[12,16]], 2 * Matrix[[2,4],[6,8]])
    assert_equal(Matrix[[14,32],[32,77]], @m1 * @m1.transpose)
    assert_equal(Matrix[[17,22,27],[22,29,36],[27,36,45]], @m1.transpose * @m1)
    assert_equal(Vector[14,32], @m1 * Vector[1,2,3])
    o = Object.new
    def o.coerce(m)
      [m, m.transpose]
    end
    assert_equal(Matrix[[14,32],[32,77]], @m1 * o)
  end

  def test_add
    assert_equal(Matrix[[6,0],[-4,12]], Matrix.scalar(2,5) + Matrix[[1,0],[-4,7]])
    assert_equal(Matrix[[3,5,7],[9,11,13]], @m1 + @n1)
    assert_equal(Matrix[[3,5,7],[9,11,13]], @n1 + @m1)
    assert_equal(Matrix[[2],[4],[6]], Matrix[[1],[2],[3]] + Vector[1,2,3])
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrOperationNotDefined) { @m1 + 1 }
    o = Object.new
    def o.coerce(m)
      [m, m]
    end
    assert_equal(Matrix[[2,4,6],[8,10,12]], @m1 + o)
  end

  def test_sub
    assert_equal(Matrix[[4,0],[4,-2]], Matrix.scalar(2,5) - Matrix[[1,0],[-4,7]])
    assert_equal(Matrix[[-1,-1,-1],[-1,-1,-1]], @m1 - @n1)
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1,1,1],[1,1,1]], @n1 - @m1)
    assert_equal(Matrix[[0],[0],[0]], Matrix[[1],[2],[3]] - Vector[1,2,3])
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrOperationNotDefined) { @m1 - 1 }
    o = Object.new
    def o.coerce(m)
      [m, m]
    end
    assert_equal(Matrix[[0,0,0],[0,0,0]], @m1 - o)
  end

  def test_div
    assert_equal(Matrix[[0,1,1],[2,2,3]], @m1 / 2)
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1,1],[1,1]], Matrix[[2,2],[2,2]] / Matrix.scalar(2,2))
    o = Object.new
    def o.coerce(m)
      [m, Matrix.scalar(2,2)]
    end
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1,1],[1,1]], Matrix[[2,2],[2,2]] / o)
  end

  def test_hadamard_product
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1,4], [9,16]], Matrix[[1,2], [3,4]].hadamard_product(Matrix[[1,2], [3,4]]))
    assert_equal(Matrix[[2, 6, 12], [20, 30, 42]], @m1.hadamard_product(@n1))
    o = Object.new
    def o.to_matrix
      Matrix[[1, 2, 3], [-1, 0, 1]]
    end
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1, 4, 9], [-4, 0, 6]], @m1.hadamard_product(o))
    e = Matrix.empty(3, 0)
    assert_equal(e, e.hadamard_product(e))
    e = Matrix.empty(0, 3)
    assert_equal(e, e.hadamard_product(e))
  end

  def test_exp
    assert_equal(Matrix[[67,96],[48,99]], Matrix[[7,6],[3,9]] ** 2)
    assert_equal(Matrix.I(5), Matrix.I(5) ** -1)
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrOperationNotDefined) { Matrix.I(5) ** Object.new }

    m = Matrix[[0,2],[1,0]]
    exp = 0b11101000
    assert_equal(Matrix.scalar(2, 1 << (exp/2)), m ** exp)
    exp = 0b11101001
    assert_equal(Matrix[[0, 2 << (exp/2)], [1 << (exp/2), 0]], m ** exp)
  end

  def test_det
    assert_equal(Matrix.instance_method(:determinant), Matrix.instance_method(:det))
  end

  def test_rank2
    assert_equal(2, Matrix[[7,6],[3,9]].rank)
    assert_equal(0, Matrix[[0,0],[0,0]].rank)
    assert_equal(3, Matrix[[0,0,1],[0,7,6],[1,3,9]].rank)
    assert_equal(1, Matrix[[0,1],[0,1],[0,1]].rank)
    assert_equal(2, @m1.rank)
  end

  def test_trace
    assert_equal(1+5+9, Matrix[[1,2,3],[4,5,6],[7,8,9]].trace)
  end

  def test_transpose
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1,4],[2,5],[3,6]], @m1.transpose)
  end

  def test_conjugate
    assert_equal(Matrix[[Complex(1,-2), Complex(0,-1), 0], [1, 2, 3]], @c1.conjugate)
  end

  def test_eigensystem
    m = Matrix[[1, 2], [3, 4]]
    v, d, v_inv = m.eigensystem
    assert(d.diagonal?)
    assert_equal(v.inv, v_inv)
    assert_equal((v * d * v_inv).round(5), m)
  end

  def test_imaginary
    assert_equal(Matrix[[2, 1, 0], [0, 0, 0]], @c1.imaginary)
  end

  def test_lup
    m = Matrix[[1, 2], [3, 4]]
    l, u, p = m.lup
    assert(l.lower_triangular?)
    assert(u.upper_triangular?)
    assert(p.permutation?)
    assert(l * u == p * m)
    assert_equal(m.lup.solve([2, 5]), Vector[1, Rational(1,2)])
  end

  def test_real
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1, 0, 0], [1, 2, 3]], @c1.real)
  end

  def test_rect
    assert_equal([Matrix[[1, 0, 0], [1, 2, 3]], Matrix[[2, 1, 0], [0, 0, 0]]], @c1.rect)
  end

  def test_row_vectors
    assert_equal([Vector[1,2,3], Vector[4,5,6]], @m1.row_vectors)
  end

  def test_column_vectors
    assert_equal([Vector[1,4], Vector[2,5], Vector[3,6]], @m1.column_vectors)
  end

  def test_to_s
    assert_equal("Matrix[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]", @m1.to_s)
    assert_equal("Matrix.empty(0, 0)", Matrix[].to_s)
    assert_equal("Matrix.empty(1, 0)", Matrix[[]].to_s)
  end

  def test_inspect
    assert_equal("Matrix[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]", @m1.inspect)
    assert_equal("Matrix.empty(0, 0)", Matrix[].inspect)
    assert_equal("Matrix.empty(1, 0)", Matrix[[]].inspect)
  end

  def test_scalar_add
    s1 = @m1.coerce(1).first
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1]], (s1 + 0) * Matrix[[1]])
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrOperationNotDefined) { s1 + Vector[0] }
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrOperationNotDefined) { s1 + Matrix[[0]] }
    o = Object.new
    def o.coerce(x)
      [1, 1]
    end
    assert_equal(2, s1 + o)
  end

  def test_scalar_sub
    s1 = @m1.coerce(1).first
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1]], (s1 - 0) * Matrix[[1]])
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrOperationNotDefined) { s1 - Vector[0] }
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrOperationNotDefined) { s1 - Matrix[[0]] }
    o = Object.new
    def o.coerce(x)
      [1, 1]
    end
    assert_equal(0, s1 - o)
  end

  def test_scalar_mul
    s1 = @m1.coerce(1).first
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1]], (s1 * 1) * Matrix[[1]])
    assert_equal(Vector[2], s1 * Vector[2])
    assert_equal(Matrix[[2]], s1 * Matrix[[2]])
    o = Object.new
    def o.coerce(x)
      [1, 1]
    end
    assert_equal(1, s1 * o)
  end

  def test_scalar_div
    s1 = @m1.coerce(1).first
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1]], (s1 / 1) * Matrix[[1]])
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrOperationNotDefined) { s1 / Vector[0] }
    assert_equal(Matrix[[Rational(1,2)]], s1 / Matrix[[2]])
    o = Object.new
    def o.coerce(x)
      [1, 1]
    end
    assert_equal(1, s1 / o)
  end

  def test_scalar_pow
    s1 = @m1.coerce(1).first
    assert_equal(Matrix[[1]], (s1 ** 1) * Matrix[[1]])
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrOperationNotDefined) { s1 ** Vector[0] }
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrOperationNotImplemented) { s1 ** Matrix[[1]] }
    o = Object.new
    def o.coerce(x)
      [1, 1]
    end
    assert_equal(1, s1 ** o)
  end

  def test_abs
    s1 = @a3.abs
    assert_equal(s1, Matrix[[4, 1, 3], [0, 3, 7], [11, 4, 2]])
  end

  def test_hstack
    assert_equal Matrix[[1,2,3,2,3,4,1,2,3], [4,5,6,5,6,7,4,5,6]],
      @m1.hstack(@n1, @m1)
    # Error checking:
    assert_raise(TypeError) { @m1.hstack(42) }
    assert_raise(TypeError) { Matrix.hstack(42, @m1) }
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrDimensionMismatch) { @m1.hstack(Matrix.identity(3)) }
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrDimensionMismatch) { @e1.hstack(@e2) }
    # Corner cases:
    assert_equal @m1, @m1.hstack
    assert_equal @e1, @e1.hstack(@e1)
    assert_equal Matrix.empty(0,6), @e2.hstack(@e2)
    assert_equal SubMatrix, SubMatrix.hstack(@e1).class
    # From Vectors:
    assert_equal Matrix[[1, 3],[2, 4]], Matrix.hstack(Vector[1,2], Vector[3, 4])
  end

  def test_vstack
    assert_equal Matrix[[1,2,3], [4,5,6], [2,3,4], [5,6,7], [1,2,3], [4,5,6]],
      @m1.vstack(@n1, @m1)
    # Error checking:
    assert_raise(TypeError) { @m1.vstack(42) }
    assert_raise(TypeError) { Matrix.vstack(42, @m1) }
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrDimensionMismatch) { @m1.vstack(Matrix.identity(2)) }
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrDimensionMismatch) { @e1.vstack(@e2) }
    # Corner cases:
    assert_equal @m1, @m1.vstack
    assert_equal Matrix.empty(4,0), @e1.vstack(@e1)
    assert_equal @e2, @e2.vstack(@e2)
    assert_equal SubMatrix, SubMatrix.vstack(@e1).class
    # From Vectors:
    assert_equal Matrix[[1],[2],[3]], Matrix.vstack(Vector[1,2], Vector[3])
  end

  def test_combine
    x = Matrix[[6, 6], [4, 4]]
    y = Matrix[[1, 2], [3, 4]]
    assert_equal Matrix[[5, 4], [1, 0]], Matrix.combine(x, y) {|a, b| a - b}
    assert_equal Matrix[[5, 4], [1, 0]], x.combine(y) {|a, b| a - b}
    # Without block
    assert_equal Matrix[[5, 4], [1, 0]], Matrix.combine(x, y).each {|a, b| a - b}
    # With vectors
    assert_equal Matrix[[111], [222]], Matrix.combine(Matrix[[1], [2]], Vector[10,20], Vector[100,200], &:sum)
    # Basic checks
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrDimensionMismatch) { @m1.combine(x) { raise } }
    # Edge cases
    assert_equal Matrix.empty, Matrix.combine{ raise }
    assert_equal Matrix.empty(3,0), Matrix.combine(Matrix.empty(3,0), Matrix.empty(3,0)) { raise }
    assert_equal Matrix.empty(0,3), Matrix.combine(Matrix.empty(0,3), Matrix.empty(0,3)) { raise }
  end

  def test_set_element
    src = Matrix[
      [1, 2, 3, 4],
      [5, 6, 7, 8],
      [9, 10, 11, 12],
    ]
    rows = {
      range:   [1..2, 1...3, 1..-1, -2..2, 1.., 1..., -2.., -2...],
      int:     [2, -1],
      invalid: [-4, 4, -4..2, 2..-4, 0...0, 2..0, -4..],
    }
    columns = {
      range:   [2..3, 2...4, 2..-1, -2..3, 2.., 2..., -2..., -2..],
      int:     [3, -1],
      invalid: [-5, 5, -5..2, 2..-5, 0...0, -5..],
    }
    values = {
      element: 42,
      matrix:  Matrix[[20, 21], [22, 23]],
      vector:  Vector[30, 31],
      row:     Matrix[[60, 61]],
      column:  Matrix[[50], [51]],
      mismatched_matrix: Matrix.identity(3),
      mismatched_vector: Vector[0, 1, 2, 3],
    }
    solutions = {
      [:int, :int] => {
        element: Matrix[[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8], [9, 10, 11, 42]],
      },
      [:range , :int] => {
        element: Matrix[[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 42], [9, 10, 11, 42]],
        column:  Matrix[[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 50], [9, 10, 11, 51]],
        vector:  Matrix[[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 30], [9, 10, 11, 31]],
      },
      [:int, :range] => {
        element: Matrix[[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8], [9, 10, 42, 42]],
        row:     Matrix[[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8], [9, 10, 60, 61]],
        vector:  Matrix[[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8], [9, 10, 30, 31]],
      },
      [:range , :range] => {
        element: Matrix[[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 42, 42], [9, 10, 42, 42]],
        matrix:  Matrix[[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 20, 21], [9, 10, 22, 23]],
      },
    }
    solutions.default = Hash.new(IndexError)

    rows.each do |row_style, row_arguments|
      row_arguments.each do |row_argument|
        columns.each do |column_style, column_arguments|
          column_arguments.each do |column_argument|
            values.each do |value_type, value|
              expected = solutions[[row_style, column_style]][value_type] || Matrix::ErrDimensionMismatch

              result = src.clone
              begin
                result[row_argument, column_argument] = value
                assert_equal expected, result,
                  "m[#{row_argument.inspect}][#{column_argument.inspect}] = #{value.inspect} failed"
              rescue Exception => e
                raise if e.class != expected
              end
            end
          end
        end
      end
    end
  end

  def test_map!
    m1 = Matrix.zero(2,2)
    m2 = Matrix.build(3,4){|row, col| 1}
    m3 = Matrix.zero(3,5).freeze
    m4 = Matrix.empty.freeze

    assert_equal Matrix[[5, 5, 5, 5], [5, 5, 5, 5], [5, 5, 5, 5]], m2.map!{|e| e * 5}
    assert_equal Matrix[[7, 0],[0, 7]], m1.map!(:diagonal){|e| e + 7}
    assert_equal Matrix[[7, 5],[5, 7]], m1.map!(:off_diagonal){|e| e + 5}
    assert_equal Matrix[[12, 5, 5, 5], [12, 12, 5, 5], [12, 12, 12, 5]], m2.map!(:lower){|e| e + 7}
    assert_equal Matrix[[12, 5, 5, 5], [0, 12, 5, 5], [0, 0, 12, 5]], m2.map!(:strict_lower){|e| e - 12}
    assert_equal Matrix[[12, 25, 25, 25], [0, 12, 25, 25], [0, 0, 12, 25]], m2.map!(:strict_upper){|e| e ** 2}
    assert_equal Matrix[[-12, -25, -25, -25], [0, -12, -25, -25], [0, 0, -12, -25]], m2.map!(:upper){|e| -e}
    assert_equal m1, m1.map!{|e| e ** 2 }
    assert_equal m2, m2.map!(:lower){ |e| e - 3 }
    assert_raise(ArgumentError) {m1.map!(:test){|e| e + 7}}
    assert_raise(FrozenError) { m3.map!{|e| e * 2} }
    assert_raise(FrozenError) { m4.map!{} }
  end

  def test_freeze
    m = Matrix[[1, 2, 3],[4, 5, 6]]
    f = m.freeze
    assert_equal true, f.frozen?
    assert m.equal?(f)
    assert m.equal?(f.freeze)
    assert_raise(FrozenError){ m[0, 1] = 56 }
    assert_equal m.dup, m
  end

  def test_clone
    a = Matrix[[4]]
    def a.foo
      42
    end

    m = a.clone
    m[0, 0] = 2
    assert_equal a, m * 2
    assert_equal 42, m.foo

    a.freeze
    m = a.clone
    assert m.frozen?
    assert_equal 42, m.foo
  end

  def test_dup
    a = Matrix[[4]]
    def a.foo
      42
    end
    a.freeze

    m = a.dup
    m[0, 0] = 2
    assert_equal a, m * 2
    assert !m.respond_to?(:foo)
  end

  def test_eigenvalues_and_eigenvectors_symmetric
    m = Matrix[
      [8, 1],
      [1, 8]
    ]
    values = m.eigensystem.eigenvalues
    assert_in_epsilon(7.0, values[0])
    assert_in_epsilon(9.0, values[1])
    vectors = m.eigensystem.eigenvectors
    assert_in_epsilon(-vectors[0][0], vectors[0][1])
    assert_in_epsilon(vectors[1][0], vectors[1][1])
  end

  def test_eigenvalues_and_eigenvectors_nonsymmetric
    m = Matrix[
      [8, 1],
      [4, 5]
    ]
    values = m.eigensystem.eigenvalues
    assert_in_epsilon(9.0, values[0])
    assert_in_epsilon(4.0, values[1])
    vectors = m.eigensystem.eigenvectors
    assert_in_epsilon(vectors[0][0], vectors[0][1])
    assert_in_epsilon(-4 * vectors[1][0], vectors[1][1])
  end

  def test_unitary?
    assert_equal true, @rot.unitary?
    assert_equal true, ((0+1i) * @rot).unitary?
    assert_equal false, @a3.unitary?
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrDimensionMismatch) { @m1.unitary? }
  end

  def test_orthogonal
    assert_equal true, @rot.orthogonal?
    assert_equal false, ((0+1i) * @rot).orthogonal?
    assert_equal false, @a3.orthogonal?
    assert_raise(Matrix::ErrDimensionMismatch) { @m1.orthogonal? }
  end

  def test_adjoint
    assert_equal(Matrix[[(1-2i), 1], [(0-1i), 2], [0, 3]], @c1.adjoint)
    assert_equal(Matrix.empty(0,2), @e1.adjoint)
  end
end