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path: root/spec/ruby/core/process/spawn_spec.rb
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require_relative '../../spec_helper'
require_relative 'fixtures/common'

newline = "\n"
platform_is :windows do
  newline = "\r\n"
end

describe :process_spawn_does_not_close_std_streams, shared: true do
  it "does not close STDIN" do
    code = "puts STDIN.read"
    cmd = "Process.wait Process.spawn(#{ruby_cmd(code).inspect}, #{@options.inspect})"
    ruby_exe(cmd, args: "< #{fixture(__FILE__, "in.txt")} > #{@name}")
    File.binread(@name).should == %[stdin#{newline}]
  end

  it "does not close STDOUT" do
    code = "STDOUT.puts 'hello'"
    cmd = "Process.wait Process.spawn(#{ruby_cmd(code).inspect}, #{@options.inspect})"
    ruby_exe(cmd, args: "> #{@name}")
    File.binread(@name).should == "hello#{newline}"
  end

  it "does not close STDERR" do
    code = "STDERR.puts 'hello'"
    cmd = "Process.wait Process.spawn(#{ruby_cmd(code).inspect}, #{@options.inspect})"
    ruby_exe(cmd, args: "2> #{@name}")
    File.binread(@name).should =~ /hello#{newline}/
  end
end

describe "Process.spawn" do
  ProcessSpecs.use_system_ruby(self)

  before :each do
    @name = tmp("process_spawn.txt")
    @var = "$FOO"
    platform_is :windows do
      @var = "%FOO%"
    end
  end

  after :each do
    rm_r @name
  end

  it "executes the given command" do
    -> { Process.wait Process.spawn("echo spawn") }.should output_to_fd("spawn\n")
  end

  it "returns the process ID of the new process as a Fixnum" do
    pid = Process.spawn(*ruby_exe, "-e", "exit")
    Process.wait pid
    pid.should be_an_instance_of(Fixnum)
  end

  it "returns immediately" do
    start = Time.now
    pid = Process.spawn(*ruby_exe, "-e", "sleep 10")
    (Time.now - start).should < 5
    Process.kill :KILL, pid
    Process.wait pid
  end

  # argv processing

  describe "with a single argument" do
    platform_is_not :windows do
      it "subjects the specified command to shell expansion" do
        -> { Process.wait Process.spawn("echo *") }.should_not output_to_fd("*\n")
      end

      it "creates an argument array with shell parsing semantics for whitespace" do
        -> { Process.wait Process.spawn("echo a b  c   d") }.should output_to_fd("a b c d\n")
      end
    end

    platform_is :windows do
      # There is no shell expansion on Windows
      it "does not subject the specified command to shell expansion on Windows" do
        -> { Process.wait Process.spawn("echo *") }.should output_to_fd("*\n")
      end

      it "does not create an argument array with shell parsing semantics for whitespace on Windows" do
        -> { Process.wait Process.spawn("echo a b  c   d") }.should output_to_fd("a b  c   d\n")
      end
    end

    it "calls #to_str to convert the argument to a String" do
      o = mock("to_str")
      o.should_receive(:to_str).and_return("echo foo")
      -> { Process.wait Process.spawn(o) }.should output_to_fd("foo\n")
    end

    it "raises an ArgumentError if the command includes a null byte" do
      -> { Process.spawn "\000" }.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
    end

    it "raises a TypeError if the argument does not respond to #to_str" do
      -> { Process.spawn :echo }.should raise_error(TypeError)
    end
  end

  describe "with multiple arguments" do
    it "does not subject the arguments to shell expansion" do
      -> { Process.wait Process.spawn("echo", "*") }.should output_to_fd("*\n")
    end

    it "preserves whitespace in passed arguments" do
      out = "a b  c   d\n"
      platform_is :windows do
        # The echo command on Windows takes quotes literally
        out = "\"a b  c   d\"\n"
      end
      -> { Process.wait Process.spawn("echo", "a b  c   d") }.should output_to_fd(out)
    end

    it "calls #to_str to convert the arguments to Strings" do
      o = mock("to_str")
      o.should_receive(:to_str).and_return("foo")
      -> { Process.wait Process.spawn("echo", o) }.should output_to_fd("foo\n")
    end

    it "raises an ArgumentError if an argument includes a null byte" do
      -> { Process.spawn "echo", "\000" }.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
    end

    it "raises a TypeError if an argument does not respond to #to_str" do
      -> { Process.spawn "echo", :foo }.should raise_error(TypeError)
    end
  end

  describe "with a command array" do
    it "uses the first element as the command name and the second as the argv[0] value" do
      platform_is_not :windows do
        -> { Process.wait Process.spawn(["/bin/sh", "argv_zero"], "-c", "echo $0") }.should output_to_fd("argv_zero\n")
      end
      platform_is :windows do
        -> { Process.wait Process.spawn(["cmd.exe", "/C"], "/C", "echo", "argv_zero") }.should output_to_fd("argv_zero\n")
      end
    end

    it "does not subject the arguments to shell expansion" do
      -> { Process.wait Process.spawn(["echo", "echo"], "*") }.should output_to_fd("*\n")
    end

    it "preserves whitespace in passed arguments" do
      out = "a b  c   d\n"
      platform_is :windows do
        # The echo command on Windows takes quotes literally
        out = "\"a b  c   d\"\n"
      end
      -> { Process.wait Process.spawn(["echo", "echo"], "a b  c   d") }.should output_to_fd(out)
    end

    it "calls #to_ary to convert the argument to an Array" do
      o = mock("to_ary")
      platform_is_not :windows do
        o.should_receive(:to_ary).and_return(["/bin/sh", "argv_zero"])
        -> { Process.wait Process.spawn(o, "-c", "echo $0") }.should output_to_fd("argv_zero\n")
      end
      platform_is :windows do
        o.should_receive(:to_ary).and_return(["cmd.exe", "/C"])
        -> { Process.wait Process.spawn(o, "/C", "echo", "argv_zero") }.should output_to_fd("argv_zero\n")
      end
    end

    it "calls #to_str to convert the first element to a String" do
      o = mock("to_str")
      o.should_receive(:to_str).and_return("echo")
      -> { Process.wait Process.spawn([o, "echo"], "foo") }.should output_to_fd("foo\n")
    end

    it "calls #to_str to convert the second element to a String" do
      o = mock("to_str")
      o.should_receive(:to_str).and_return("echo")
      -> { Process.wait Process.spawn(["echo", o], "foo") }.should output_to_fd("foo\n")
    end

    it "raises an ArgumentError if the Array does not have exactly two elements" do
      -> { Process.spawn([]) }.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
      -> { Process.spawn([:a]) }.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
      -> { Process.spawn([:a, :b, :c]) }.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
    end

    it "raises an ArgumentError if the Strings in the Array include a null byte" do
      -> { Process.spawn ["\000", "echo"] }.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
      -> { Process.spawn ["echo", "\000"] }.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
    end

    it "raises a TypeError if an element in the Array does not respond to #to_str" do
      -> { Process.spawn ["echo", :echo] }.should raise_error(TypeError)
      -> { Process.spawn [:echo, "echo"] }.should raise_error(TypeError)
    end
  end

  # env handling

  after :each do
    ENV.delete("FOO")
  end

  it "sets environment variables in the child environment" do
    Process.wait Process.spawn({"FOO" => "BAR"}, "echo #{@var}>#{@name}")
    File.read(@name).should == "BAR\n"
  end

  it "unsets environment variables whose value is nil" do
    ENV["FOO"] = "BAR"
    -> do
      Process.wait Process.spawn({"FOO" => nil}, ruby_cmd("p ENV['FOO']"))
    end.should output_to_fd("nil\n")
  end

  it "calls #to_hash to convert the environment" do
    o = mock("to_hash")
    o.should_receive(:to_hash).and_return({"FOO" => "BAR"})
    Process.wait Process.spawn(o, "echo #{@var}>#{@name}")
    File.read(@name).should == "BAR\n"
  end

  it "calls #to_str to convert the environment keys" do
    o = mock("to_str")
    o.should_receive(:to_str).and_return("FOO")
    Process.wait Process.spawn({o => "BAR"}, "echo #{@var}>#{@name}")
    File.read(@name).should == "BAR\n"
  end

  it "calls #to_str to convert the environment values" do
    o = mock("to_str")
    o.should_receive(:to_str).and_return("BAR")
    Process.wait Process.spawn({"FOO" => o}, "echo #{@var}>#{@name}")
    File.read(@name).should == "BAR\n"
  end

  it "raises an ArgumentError if an environment key includes an equals sign" do
    -> do
      Process.spawn({"FOO=" => "BAR"}, "echo #{@var}>#{@name}")
    end.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
  end

  it "raises an ArgumentError if an environment key includes a null byte" do
    -> do
      Process.spawn({"\000" => "BAR"}, "echo #{@var}>#{@name}")
    end.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
  end

  it "raises an ArgumentError if an environment value includes a null byte" do
    -> do
      Process.spawn({"FOO" => "\000"}, "echo #{@var}>#{@name}")
    end.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
  end

  # :unsetenv_others

  before :each do
    @minimal_env = {
      "PATH" => ENV["PATH"],
      "HOME" => ENV["HOME"]
    }
    @common_env_spawn_args = [@minimal_env, "echo #{@var}>#{@name}"]
  end

  platform_is_not :windows do
    it "unsets other environment variables when given a true :unsetenv_others option" do
      ENV["FOO"] = "BAR"
      Process.wait Process.spawn(*@common_env_spawn_args, unsetenv_others: true)
      $?.success?.should be_true
      File.read(@name).should == "\n"
    end
  end

  it "does not unset other environment variables when given a false :unsetenv_others option" do
    ENV["FOO"] = "BAR"
    Process.wait Process.spawn(*@common_env_spawn_args, unsetenv_others: false)
    $?.success?.should be_true
    File.read(@name).should == "BAR\n"
  end

  platform_is_not :windows do
    it "does not unset environment variables included in the environment hash" do
      env = @minimal_env.merge({"FOO" => "BAR"})
      Process.wait Process.spawn(env, "echo #{@var}>#{@name}", unsetenv_others: true)
      $?.success?.should be_true
      File.read(@name).should == "BAR\n"
    end
  end

  # :pgroup

  platform_is_not :windows do
    it "joins the current process group by default" do
      -> do
        Process.wait Process.spawn(ruby_cmd("print Process.getpgid(Process.pid)"))
      end.should output_to_fd(Process.getpgid(Process.pid).to_s)
    end

    it "joins the current process if pgroup: false" do
      -> do
        Process.wait Process.spawn(ruby_cmd("print Process.getpgid(Process.pid)"), pgroup: false)
      end.should output_to_fd(Process.getpgid(Process.pid).to_s)
    end

    it "joins the current process if pgroup: nil" do
      -> do
        Process.wait Process.spawn(ruby_cmd("print Process.getpgid(Process.pid)"), pgroup: nil)
      end.should output_to_fd(Process.getpgid(Process.pid).to_s)
    end

    it "joins a new process group if pgroup: true" do
      process = -> do
        Process.wait Process.spawn(ruby_cmd("print Process.getpgid(Process.pid)"), pgroup: true)
      end

      process.should_not output_to_fd(Process.getpgid(Process.pid).to_s)
      process.should output_to_fd(/\d+/)
    end

    it "joins a new process group if pgroup: 0" do
      process = -> do
        Process.wait Process.spawn(ruby_cmd("print Process.getpgid(Process.pid)"), pgroup: 0)
      end

      process.should_not output_to_fd(Process.getpgid(Process.pid).to_s)
      process.should output_to_fd(/\d+/)
    end

    it "joins the specified process group if pgroup: pgid" do
      pgid = Process.getpgid(Process.pid)
      # The process group is not available on all platforms.
      # See "man proc" - /proc/[pid]/stat - (5) pgrp
      # In Travis arm64 environment, the value is 0.
      #
      # $ cat /proc/[pid]/stat
      # 19179 (ruby) S 19160 0 0 ...
      unless pgid.zero?
        -> do
          Process.wait Process.spawn(ruby_cmd("print Process.getpgid(Process.pid)"), pgroup: pgid)
        end.should output_to_fd(pgid.to_s)
      else
        skip "The process group is not available."
      end
    end

    it "raises an ArgumentError if given a negative :pgroup option" do
      -> { Process.spawn("echo", pgroup: -1) }.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
    end

    it "raises a TypeError if given a symbol as :pgroup option" do
      -> { Process.spawn("echo", pgroup: :true) }.should raise_error(TypeError)
    end
  end

  platform_is :windows do
    it "raises an ArgumentError if given :pgroup option" do
      -> { Process.spawn("echo", pgroup: false) }.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
    end
  end

  # :rlimit_core
  # :rlimit_cpu
  # :rlimit_data

  # :chdir

  it "uses the current working directory as its working directory" do
    -> do
      Process.wait Process.spawn(ruby_cmd("print Dir.pwd"))
    end.should output_to_fd(Dir.pwd)
  end

  describe "when passed :chdir" do
    before do
      @dir = tmp("spawn_chdir", false)
      Dir.mkdir @dir
    end

    after do
      rm_r @dir
    end

    it "changes to the directory passed for :chdir" do
      -> do
        Process.wait Process.spawn(ruby_cmd("print Dir.pwd"), chdir: @dir)
      end.should output_to_fd(@dir)
    end

    it "calls #to_path to convert the :chdir value" do
      dir = mock("spawn_to_path")
      dir.should_receive(:to_path).and_return(@dir)

      -> do
        Process.wait Process.spawn(ruby_cmd("print Dir.pwd"), chdir: dir)
      end.should output_to_fd(@dir)
    end
  end

  # chdir

  platform_is :linux do
    describe "inside Dir.chdir" do
      def child_pids(pid)
        `pgrep -P #{pid}`.lines.map { |child| Integer(child) }
      end

      it "does not create extra process without chdir" do
        pid = Process.spawn("sleep 10")
        begin
          child_pids(pid).size.should == 0
        ensure
          Process.kill("TERM", pid)
          Process.wait(pid)
        end
      end

      it "kills extra chdir processes" do
        pid = nil
        Dir.chdir("/") do
          pid = Process.spawn("sleep 10")
        end

        children = child_pids(pid)
        children.size.should <= 1

        Process.kill("TERM", pid)
        Process.wait(pid)

        if children.size > 0
          # wait a bit for children to die
          sleep(1)

          children.each do |child|
            -> do
              Process.kill("TERM", child)
            end.should raise_error(Errno::ESRCH)
          end
        end
      end
    end
  end

  # :umask

  it "uses the current umask by default" do
    -> do
      Process.wait Process.spawn(ruby_cmd("print File.umask"))
    end.should output_to_fd(File.umask.to_s)
  end

  platform_is_not :windows do
    it "sets the umask if given the :umask option" do
      -> do
        Process.wait Process.spawn(ruby_cmd("print File.umask"), umask: 146)
      end.should output_to_fd("146")
    end
  end

  # redirection

  it "redirects STDOUT to the given file descriptor if out: Fixnum" do
    File.open(@name, 'w') do |file|
      -> do
        Process.wait Process.spawn("echo glark", out: file.fileno)
      end.should output_to_fd("glark\n", file)
    end
  end

  it "redirects STDOUT to the given file if out: IO" do
    File.open(@name, 'w') do |file|
      -> do
        Process.wait Process.spawn("echo glark", out: file)
      end.should output_to_fd("glark\n", file)
    end
  end

  it "redirects STDOUT to the given file if out: String" do
    Process.wait Process.spawn("echo glark", out: @name)
    File.read(@name).should == "glark\n"
  end

  it "redirects STDOUT to the given file if out: [String name, String mode]" do
    Process.wait Process.spawn("echo glark", out: [@name, 'w'])
    File.read(@name).should == "glark\n"
  end

  it "redirects STDERR to the given file descriptor if err: Fixnum" do
    File.open(@name, 'w') do |file|
      -> do
        Process.wait Process.spawn("echo glark>&2", err: file.fileno)
      end.should output_to_fd("glark\n", file)
    end
  end

  it "redirects STDERR to the given file descriptor if err: IO" do
    File.open(@name, 'w') do |file|
      -> do
        Process.wait Process.spawn("echo glark>&2", err: file)
      end.should output_to_fd("glark\n", file)
    end
  end

  it "redirects STDERR to the given file if err: String" do
    Process.wait Process.spawn("echo glark>&2", err: @name)
    File.read(@name).should == "glark\n"
  end

  it "redirects STDERR to child STDOUT if :err => [:child, :out]" do
    File.open(@name, 'w') do |file|
      -> do
        Process.wait Process.spawn("echo glark>&2", :out => file, :err => [:child, :out])
      end.should output_to_fd("glark\n", file)
    end
  end

  it "redirects both STDERR and STDOUT to the given file descriptor" do
    File.open(@name, 'w') do |file|
      -> do
        Process.wait Process.spawn(ruby_cmd("print(:glark); STDOUT.flush; STDERR.print(:bang)"),
                                   [:out, :err] => file.fileno)
      end.should output_to_fd("glarkbang", file)
    end
  end

  it "redirects both STDERR and STDOUT to the given IO" do
    File.open(@name, 'w') do |file|
      -> do
        Process.wait Process.spawn(ruby_cmd("print(:glark); STDOUT.flush; STDERR.print(:bang)"),
                                   [:out, :err] => file)
      end.should output_to_fd("glarkbang", file)
    end
  end

  it "redirects both STDERR and STDOUT at the time to the given name" do
    touch @name
    Process.wait Process.spawn(ruby_cmd("print(:glark); STDOUT.flush; STDERR.print(:bang)"), [:out, :err] => @name)
    File.read(@name).should == "glarkbang"
  end

  it "closes STDERR in the child if :err => :close" do
    File.open(@name, 'w') do |file|
      -> do
        code = "begin; STDOUT.puts 'out'; STDERR.puts 'hello'; rescue => e; puts 'rescued'; end"
        Process.wait Process.spawn(ruby_cmd(code), :out => file, :err => :close)
      end.should output_to_fd("out\nrescued\n", file)
    end
  end

  # :close_others

  platform_is_not :windows do
    context "defaults :close_others to" do
      ruby_version_is ""..."2.6" do
        it "true" do
          IO.pipe do |r, w|
            w.close_on_exec = false
            code = "begin; IO.new(#{w.fileno}).close; rescue Errno::EBADF; puts 'not inherited'; end"
            Process.wait Process.spawn(ruby_cmd(code), :out => @name)
            File.read(@name).should == "not inherited\n"
          end
        end
      end

      ruby_version_is "2.6" do
        it "false" do
          IO.pipe do |r, w|
            w.close_on_exec = false
            code = "io = IO.new(#{w.fileno}); io.puts('inherited'); io.close"
            pid = Process.spawn(ruby_cmd(code))
            w.close
            Process.wait(pid)
            r.read.should == "inherited\n"
          end
        end
      end
    end

    context "when passed close_others: true" do
      before :each do
        @options = { close_others: true }
      end

      it "closes file descriptors >= 3 in the child process even if fds are set close_on_exec=false" do
        touch @name
        IO.pipe do |r, w|
          r.close_on_exec = false
          w.close_on_exec = false

          begin
            pid = Process.spawn(ruby_cmd("while File.exist? '#{@name}'; sleep 0.1; end"), @options)
            w.close
            r.read(1).should == nil
          ensure
            rm_r @name
            Process.wait(pid) if pid
          end
        end
      end

      it_should_behave_like :process_spawn_does_not_close_std_streams
    end

    context "when passed close_others: false" do
      before :each do
        @options = { close_others: false }
      end

      it "closes file descriptors >= 3 in the child process because they are set close_on_exec by default" do
        touch @name
        IO.pipe do |r, w|
          begin
            pid = Process.spawn(ruby_cmd("while File.exist? '#{@name}'; sleep 0.1; end"), @options)
            w.close
            r.read(1).should == nil
          ensure
            rm_r @name
            Process.wait(pid) if pid
          end
        end
      end

      it "does not close file descriptors >= 3 in the child process if fds are set close_on_exec=false" do
        IO.pipe do |r, w|
          r.close_on_exec = false
          w.close_on_exec = false

          code = "fd = IO.for_fd(#{w.fileno}); fd.autoclose = false; fd.write 'abc'; fd.close"
          pid = Process.spawn(ruby_cmd(code), @options)
          begin
            w.close
            r.read.should == 'abc'
          ensure
            Process.wait(pid)
          end
        end
      end

      it_should_behave_like :process_spawn_does_not_close_std_streams
    end
  end

  # error handling

  it "raises an ArgumentError if passed no command arguments" do
    -> { Process.spawn }.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
  end

  it "raises an ArgumentError if passed env or options but no command arguments" do
    -> { Process.spawn({}) }.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
  end

  it "raises an ArgumentError if passed env and options but no command arguments" do
    -> { Process.spawn({}, {}) }.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
  end

  it "raises an Errno::ENOENT for an empty string" do
    -> { Process.spawn "" }.should raise_error(Errno::ENOENT)
  end

  it "raises an Errno::ENOENT if the command does not exist" do
    -> { Process.spawn "nonesuch" }.should raise_error(Errno::ENOENT)
  end

  unless File.executable?(__FILE__) # Some FS (e.g. vboxfs) locate all files executable
    platform_is_not :windows do
      it "raises an Errno::EACCES when the file does not have execute permissions" do
        -> { Process.spawn __FILE__ }.should raise_error(Errno::EACCES)
      end
    end

    platform_is :windows do
      it "raises Errno::EACCES or Errno::ENOEXEC when the file is not an executable file" do
        -> { Process.spawn __FILE__ }.should raise_error(SystemCallError) { |e|
          [Errno::EACCES, Errno::ENOEXEC].should include(e.class)
        }
      end
    end
  end

  it "raises an Errno::EACCES or Errno::EISDIR when passed a directory" do
    -> { Process.spawn File.dirname(__FILE__) }.should raise_error(SystemCallError) { |e|
      [Errno::EACCES, Errno::EISDIR].should include(e.class)
    }
  end

  it "raises an ArgumentError when passed a string key in options" do
    -> { Process.spawn("echo", "chdir" => Dir.pwd) }.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
  end

  it "raises an ArgumentError when passed an unknown option key" do
    -> { Process.spawn("echo", nonesuch: :foo) }.should raise_error(ArgumentError)
  end

  platform_is_not :windows, :aix do
    describe "with Integer option keys" do
      before :each do
        @name = tmp("spawn_fd_map.txt")
        @io = new_io @name, "w+"
        @io.sync = true
      end

      after :each do
        @io.close unless @io.closed?
        rm_r @name
      end

      it "maps the key to a file descriptor in the child that inherits the file descriptor from the parent specified by the value" do
        child_fd = find_unused_fd
        args = ruby_cmd(fixture(__FILE__, "map_fd.rb"), args: [child_fd.to_s])
        pid = Process.spawn(*args, { child_fd => @io })
        Process.waitpid pid
        @io.rewind

        @io.read.should == "writing to fd: #{child_fd}"
      end
    end
  end
end