path: root/vm.c
AgeCommit message (Collapse)Author
2020-05-21Unpin and update VM referencesAaron Patterson
This commit just unpins and updates VM references
2020-05-18Allow references stored in the VM stack to moveAaron Patterson
We can update these references too, so lets allow them to move.
2020-05-14Thread scheduler for light weight concurrency.Samuel Williams
Notes: Merged: Merged-By: ioquatix <>
2020-04-08Merge pull request #2991 from shyouhei/ruby.h卜部昌平
Split ruby.h Notes: Merged-By: shyouhei <>
2020-03-17Reduce allocations for keyword argument hashesJeremy Evans
Previously, passing a keyword splat to a method always allocated a hash on the caller side, and accepting arbitrary keywords in a method allocated a separate hash on the callee side. Passing explicit keywords to a method that accepted a keyword splat did not allocate a hash on the caller side, but resulted in two hashes allocated on the callee side. This commit makes passing a single keyword splat to a method not allocate a hash on the caller side. Passing multiple keyword splats or a mix of explicit keywords and a keyword splat still generates a hash on the caller side. On the callee side, if arbitrary keywords are not accepted, it does not allocate a hash. If arbitrary keywords are accepted, it will allocate a hash, but this commit uses a callinfo flag to indicate whether the caller already allocated a hash, and if so, the callee can use the passed hash without duplicating it. So this commit should make it so that a maximum of a single hash is allocated during method calls. To set the callinfo flag appropriately, method call argument compilation checks if only a single keyword splat is given. If only one keyword splat is given, the VM_CALL_KW_SPLAT_MUT callinfo flag is not set, since in that case the keyword splat is passed directly and not mutable. If more than one splat is used, a new hash needs to be generated on the caller side, and in that case the callinfo flag is set, indicating the keyword splat is mutable by the callee. In compile_hash, used for both hash and keyword argument compilation, if compiling keyword arguments and only a single keyword splat is used, pass the argument directly. On the caller side, in vm_args.c, the callinfo flag needs to be recognized and handled. Because the keyword splat argument may not be a hash, it needs to be converted to a hash first if not. Then, unless the callinfo flag is set, the hash needs to be duplicated. The temporary copy of the callinfo flag, kw_flag, is updated if a hash was duplicated, to prevent the need to duplicate it again. If we are converting to a hash or duplicating a hash, we need to update the argument array, which can including duplicating the positional splat array if one was passed. CALLER_SETUP_ARG and a couple other places needs to be modified to handle similar issues for other types of calls. This includes fairly comprehensive tests for different ways keywords are handled internally, checking that you get equal results but that keyword splats on the caller side result in distinct objects for keyword rest parameters. Included are benchmarks for keyword argument calls. Brief results when compiled without optimization: def kw(a: 1) a end def kws(**kw) kw end h = {a: 1} kw(a: 1) # about same kw(**h) # 2.37x faster kws(a: 1) # 1.30x faster kws(**h) # 2.19x faster kw(a: 1, **h) # 1.03x slower kw(**h, **h) # about same kws(a: 1, **h) # 1.16x faster kws(**h, **h) # 1.14x faster Notes: Merged:
2020-03-11add debug method RubyVM::mtbl2 (disabled)Koichi Sasada
2020-02-22Introduce disposable call-cache.Koichi Sasada
This patch contains several ideas: (1) Disposable inline method cache (IMC) for race-free inline method cache * Making call-cache (CC) as a RVALUE (GC target object) and allocate new CC on cache miss. * This technique allows race-free access from parallel processing elements like RCU. (2) Introduce per-Class method cache (pCMC) * Instead of fixed-size global method cache (GMC), pCMC allows flexible cache size. * Caching CCs reduces CC allocation and allow sharing CC's fast-path between same call-info (CI) call-sites. (3) Invalidate an inline method cache by invalidating corresponding method entries (MEs) * Instead of using class serials, we set "invalidated" flag for method entry itself to represent cache invalidation. * Compare with using class serials, the impact of method modification (add/overwrite/delete) is small. * Updating class serials invalidate all method caches of the class and sub-classes. * Proposed approach only invalidate the method cache of only one ME. See [Feature #16614] for more details. Notes: Merged:
2020-02-22VALUE size packed callinfo (ci).Koichi Sasada
Now, rb_call_info contains how to call the method with tuple of (mid, orig_argc, flags, kwarg). Most of cases, kwarg == NULL and mid+argc+flags only requires 64bits. So this patch packed rb_call_info to VALUE (1 word) on such cases. If we can not represent it in VALUE, then use imemo_callinfo which contains conventional callinfo (rb_callinfo, renamed from rb_call_info). iseq->body->ci_kw_size is removed because all of callinfo is VALUE size (packed ci or a pointer to imemo_callinfo). To access ci information, we need to use these functions: vm_ci_mid(ci), _flag(ci), _argc(ci), _kwarg(ci). struct rb_call_info_kw_arg is renamed to rb_callinfo_kwarg. rb_funcallv_with_cc() and rb_method_basic_definition_p_with_cc() is temporary removed because cd->ci should be marked. Notes: Merged:
2020-02-20hide vm_ep_in_heap_p_卜部昌平
`make leaked-globals` points out that this function is leaked. This has not been detected in our CI because it is defined only when VM_CHECK_MODE is nonzero. Just make it static and everytihng goes well.
2020-02-09Disable GC until VM objects get initialized [Bug #16616]Nobuyoshi Nakada
2020-02-07more on NULL versus functions.卜部昌平
Function pointers are not void*. See also ce4ea956d24eab5089a143bba38126f2b11b55b6 8427fca49bd85205f5a8766292dd893f003c0e48
2020-02-06Increase the frozen_strings table initial sizeJean Boussier
It was set to 1000 in a4a2b9be7a55bb61d17cf9673ed0d2a93bb52d31. However on ruby-2.7.0p0, there are much more than 1k frozen string right after boot: ``` $ ruby -robjspace -e 'p ObjectSpace.each_object(String).select { |s| s.frozen? && ObjectSpace.dump(s).include?(%{"fstring":true})}.uniq.count' 5948 ``` Notes: Merged:
2020-01-11Let execution context local storage be an ID tableLourens Naudé
Notes: Merged:
2020-01-02Fully separate positional arguments and keyword argumentsJeremy Evans
This removes the warnings added in 2.7, and changes the behavior so that a final positional hash is not treated as keywords or vice-versa. To handle the arg_setup_block splat case correctly with keyword arguments, we need to check if we are taking a keyword hash. That case didn't have a test, but it affects real-world code, so add a test for it. This removes rb_empty_keyword_given_p() and related code, as that is not needed in Ruby 3. The empty keyword case is the same as the no keyword case in Ruby 3. This changes rb_scan_args to implement keyword argument separation for C functions when the : character is used. For backwards compatibility, it returns a duped hash. This is a bad idea for performance, but not duping the hash breaks at least Enumerator::ArithmeticSequence#inspect. Instead of having RB_PASS_CALLED_KEYWORDS be a number, simplify the code by just making it be rb_keyword_given_p(). Notes: Merged:
2020-01-03move internal/debug.h definitions to internal.hKoichi Sasada
Debug utilities should be accessible from any internal code.
2019-12-26decouple internal.h headers卜部昌平
Saves comitters' daily life by avoid #include-ing everything from internal.h to make each file do so instead. This would significantly speed up incremental builds. We take the following inclusion order in this changeset: 1. "ruby/config.h", where _GNU_SOURCE is defined (must be the very first thing among everything). 2. RUBY_EXTCONF_H if any. 3. Standard C headers, sorted alphabetically. 4. Other system headers, maybe guarded by #ifdef 5. Everything else, sorted alphabetically. Exceptions are those win32-related headers, which tend not be self- containing (headers have inclusion order dependencies). Notes: Merged:
2019-12-23[DOC] Fix invalid code to make it syntax highlightedMarcus Stollsteimer
2019-12-20Fixed misspellingsNobuyoshi Nakada
Fixed misspellings reported at [Bug #16437], only in ruby and rubyspec.
2019-12-17Skip optimized method check for most method IDsJohn Hawthorn
Previously every time a method was defined on a module, we would recursively walk all subclasses to see if the module was included in a class which the VM optimizes for (such as Integer#+). For most method definitions we can tell immediately that this won't be the case based on the method's name. To do this we just keep a hash with method IDs of optimized methods and if our new method isn't in that list we don't need to check subclasses at all. Notes: Merged:
2019-12-05fix parameterKoichi Sasada
2019-11-18Deprecate taint/trust and related methods, and make the methods no-opsJeremy Evans
This removes the related tests, and puts the related specs behind version guards. This affects all code in lib, including some libraries that may want to support older versions of Ruby. Notes: Merged:
2019-11-08support builtin features with Ruby and C.Koichi Sasada
Support loading builtin features written in Ruby, which implement with C builtin functions. [Feature #16254] Several features: (1) Load .rb file at boottime with native binary. Now, prelude.rb is loaded at boottime. However, this file is contained into the interpreter as a text format and we need to compile it. This patch contains a feature to load from binary format. (2) __builtin_func() in Ruby call func() written in C. In Ruby file, we can write `__builtin_func()` like method call. However this is not a method call, but special syntax to call a function `func()` written in C. C functions should be defined in a file (same compile unit) which load this .rb file. Functions (`func` in above example) should be defined with (a) 1st parameter: rb_execution_context_t *ec (b) rest parameters (0 to 15). (c) VALUE return type. This is very similar requirements for functions used by rb_define_method(), however `rb_execution_context_t *ec` is new requirement. (3) automatic C code generation from .rb files. tool/mk_builtin_loader.rb creates a C code to load .rb files needed by miniruby and ruby command. This script is run by BASERUBY, so *.rb should be written in BASERUBY compatbile syntax. This script load a .rb file and find all of __builtin_ prefix method calls, and generate a part of C code to export functions. tool/mk_builtin_binary.rb creates a C code which contains binary compiled Ruby files needed by ruby command. Notes: Merged:
2019-11-06Remove duplicate codeAaron Patterson
These functions are the same, so remove one. Co-authored-by: John Hawthorn <>
2019-10-29Right size the vm_default_params hashLourens Naudé
Notes: Merged:
This reverts commits: 10d6a3aca7 8ba48c1b85 fba8627dc1 dd883de5ba 6c6a25feca 167e6b48f1 7cb96d41a5 3207979278 595b3c4fdd 1521f7cf89 c11c5e69ac cf33608203 3632a812c0 f56506be0d 86427a3219 . The reason for the revert is that we observe ABA problem around inline method cache. When a cache misshits, we search for a method entry. And if the entry is identical to what was cached before, we reuse the cache. But the commits we are reverting here introduced situations where a method entry is freed, then the identical memory region is used for another method entry. An inline method cache cannot detect that ABA. Here is a code that reproduce such situation: ```ruby require 'prime' class << Integer alias org_sqrt sqrt def sqrt(n) raise end GC.stress = true Prime.each(7*37){} rescue nil # <- Here we populate CC class <<; end # These adjacent remove-then-alias maneuver # frees a method entry, then immediately # reuses it for another. remove_method :sqrt alias sqrt org_sqrt end Prime.each(7*37).to_a # <- SEGV ```
2019-09-30refactor constify most of rb_method_entry_t卜部昌平
Now that we have eliminated most destructive operations over the rb_method_entry_t / rb_callable_method_entry_t, let's make them mostly immutabe and mark them const. One exception is rb_export_method(), which destructively modifies visibilities of method entries. I have left that operation as is because I suspect that destructiveness is the nature of that function. Notes: Merged:
2019-09-30refactor delete vm_cref_dump卜部昌平
No longer used. Notes: Merged:
2019-09-29Remove VM_NO_KEYWORDS, replace with RB_NO_KEYWORDSJeremy Evans
VM_NO_KEYWORDS was introduced first in vm_core.h, but it is best to only use a single definition for this.
2019-09-26Fix more keyword separation issuesJeremy Evans
This fixes instance_exec and similar methods. It also fixes Enumerator::Yielder#yield, rb_yield_block, and a couple of cases with Proc#{<<,>>}. This support requires the addition of rb_yield_values_kw, similar to rb_yield_values2, for passing the keyword flag. Unlike earlier attempts at this, this does not modify the rb_block_call_func type or add a separate function type. The functions of type rb_block_call_func are called by Ruby with a separate VM frame, and we can get the keyword flag information from the VM frame flags, so it doesn't need to be passed as a function argument. These changes require the following VM functions accept a keyword flag: * vm_yield_with_cref * vm_yield * vm_yield_with_block Notes: Merged:
2019-09-24suppress meddlesome clang10 warrning卜部昌平
It says: vm.c:2519:34: warning: expression does not compute the number of elements in this array; element type is 'const struct __jmp_buf_tag', not 'VALUE' (aka 'unsigned long') [-Wsizeof-array-div] sizeof(ec->machine.regs) / sizeof(VALUE)); ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ^ vm.c:2519:34: note: place parentheses around the 'sizeof(VALUE)' expression to silence this warning
2019-09-24refactor delete unused variable卜部昌平
cadfaacb2533d47d52dbb5dbefe724d7bf11112e missed it.
2019-09-23Lazy init thread local storageLourens Naudé
Notes: Merged:
2019-09-06Convert keyword argument to required positional hash argument for Class#new, ↵Jeremy Evans
Method#call, UnboundMethod#bind_call Also add keyword argument separation warnings for Class#new and Method#call. To allow for keyword argument to required positional hash converstion in cfuncs, add a vm frame flag indicating the cfunc was called with an empty keyword hash (which was removed before calling the cfunc). The cfunc can check this frame flag and add back an empty hash if it is passing its arguments to another Ruby method. Add rb_empty_keyword_given_p function for checking if called with an empty keyword hash, and rb_add_empty_keyword for adding back an empty hash to argv. All of this empty keyword argument support is only for 2.7. It will be removed in 3.0 as Ruby 3 will not convert empty keyword arguments to required positional hash arguments. Comment all of the relevent code to make it obvious this is expected to be removed. Add rb_funcallv_kw as an public C-API function, just like rb_funcallv but with a keyword flag. This is used by rb_obj_call_init (internals of Class#new). This also required expected call_type enum with CALL_FCALL_KW, similar to the recent addition of CALL_PUBLIC_KW. Add rb_vm_call_kw as a internal function, used by call_method_data (internals of Method#call and UnboundMethod#bind_call). Add tests for UnboundMethod#bind_call keyword handling. Notes: Merged:
2019-09-05Add VM_NO_KEYWORDSJeremy Evans
I think this is easier to read than using literal 0 with comments in every case where it is used.
2019-09-05Propagate kw_splat informationYusuke Endoh
The kw_splat flag is whether the original call passes keyword or not. Some types of methods (e.g., bmethod and sym_proc) drops the information. This change tries to propagate the flag to the final callee, as far as I can.
2019-09-03Merge pull request #2422 from jeremyevans/rb_keyword_given_pJeremy Evans
Add rb_keyword_given_p to the C-API Notes: Merged-By: jeremyevans <>
2019-08-30Allow ** syntax to be used for calling methods that do not accept keywordsJeremy Evans
Treat the ** syntax as passing a copy of the hash as the last positional argument. If the hash being double splatted is empty, do not add a positional argument. Remove rb_no_keyword_hash, no longer needed. Notes: Merged:
2019-08-30Separate keyword arguments from positional argumentsYusuke Endoh
And, allow non-symbol keys as a keyword arugment Notes: Merged:
2019-08-29drop-in type check for rb_define_singleton_method卜部昌平
We can check the function pointer passed to rb_define_singleton_method like how we do so in rb_define_method. Doing so revealed many arity mismatches.
2019-08-29drop-in type check for rb_define_method_id卜部昌平
We can check the function pointer passed to rb_define_method_id like how we do so in rb_define_method. This method is relatively rarely used so there are less problems found than the other APIs.
2019-08-19Make it as clear as possible that RubyVM is MRI-specific and only exists on ↵Benoit Daloze
MRI (#2113) [ci skip] * Make it clear as possible that RubyVM is MRI-specific and only exists on MRI * See [Bug #15743]. * Use "CRuby VM" instead of "Ruby VM" for clarity. * Use YARV rather than "CRuby VM" for documenting RubyVM::InstructionSequence * Avoid introducing a new "CRuby VM" term in documentation
2019-08-12Rename rb_gc_mark_no_pin -> rb_gc_mark_movableAaron Patterson
Renaming this function. "No pin" leaks some implementation details. We just want users to know that if they mark this object, the reference may move and they'll need to update the reference accordingly.
2019-08-08solve "duplicate :raise event" [Bug #15877]Koichi Sasada
Without this patch, "raise" event invoked twice when raise an exception in "load"ed script. This patch by danielwaterworth (Daniel Waterworth). [Bug #15877]
2019-08-08Add *_clear methods to VM_COLLECT_USAGE_DETAILS APIGannon McGibbon
2019-08-08Add *_start and *_running methods to VM_COLLECT_USAGE_DETAILS APIGannon McGibbon
2019-08-07Add a way to print debug counters without exitingAaron Patterson
I am trying to study debug counters inside a Rails application. Accessing debug counters by killing the process is hard because child processes don't get the same TRAP as the parent, and Rails seems to intercept calls to `exit`. Adding this method lets me print the debug counters when I want (at the end of requests for example)
2019-08-02Revert "Revert "Add a specialized instruction for `.nil?` calls""Yusuke Endoh
This reverts commit a0980f2446c0db735b8ffeb37e241370c458a626. Retry for macOS Mojave.
2019-08-02Revert "Add a specialized instruction for `.nil?` calls"Yusuke Endoh
This reverts commit 9faef3113fb4331524b81ba73005ba13fa0ef6c6. It seemed to cause a failure on macOS Mojave, though I'm unsure how. This tentative revert is to check if the issue is actually caused by the change or not.
2019-08-01Make attr* methods define public methods if self in caller is not same as ↵Jeremy Evans
receiver Previously, attr* methods could be private even if not in the private section of a class/module block. This uses the same approach that ruby started using for define_method in 1fc33199736f316dd71d0c551edbf514528ddde6. Fixes [Bug #4537]
2019-08-01calc_lineno(): add assertions卜部昌平
This function has a lot of assumptions. Should make them sure.