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-rw-r--r--doc/rake/README196
-rw-r--r--doc/rake/command_line_usage.rdoc169
-rw-r--r--doc/rake/glossary.rdoc51
-rw-r--r--doc/rake/rakefile.rdoc557
-rw-r--r--doc/rake/rational.rdoc151
5 files changed, 0 insertions, 1124 deletions
diff --git a/doc/rake/README b/doc/rake/README
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-= RAKE -- Ruby Make
-
-Supporting Rake version: 0.8.6
-
-This package contains Rake, a simple ruby build program with
-capabilities similar to make.
-
-Rake has the following features:
-
-* Rakefiles (rake's version of Makefiles) are completely defined in
- standard Ruby syntax. No XML files to edit. No quirky Makefile
- syntax to worry about (is that a tab or a space?)
-
-* Users can specify tasks with prerequisites.
-
-* Rake supports rule patterns to synthesize implicit tasks.
-
-* Flexible FileLists that act like arrays but know about manipulating
- file names and paths.
-
-* A library of prepackaged tasks to make building rakefiles easier. For example,
- tasks for building tarballs, gems and RDoc output are provided.
-
-* Supports parallel execution of tasks.
-
-
-== Installation
-
-=== Gem Installation
-
-Download and install rake with the following.
-
- gem install rake
-
-=== Normal Installation
-
-You can download the source tarball of the latest version of Rake from
-
-* http://rubyforge.org/project/showfiles.php?group_id=50
-
-Extract the tarball and run
-
- % ruby install.rb
-
-from its distribution directory.
-
-== Usage
-
-=== Simple Example
-
-First, you must write a "Rakefile" file which contains the build rules. Here's
-a simple example:
-
- task :default => [:test]
-
- task :test do
- ruby "test/unittest.rb"
- end
-
-This Rakefile has two tasks:
-
-* A task named "test", which - upon invocation - will run a unit test file in
- Ruby.
-* A task named "default". This task does nothing by itself, but it has exactly
- one dependency, namely the "test" task. Invoking the "default" task will
- cause Rake to invoke the "test" task as well.
-
-Running the "rake" command without any options will cause it to run the
-"default" task in the Rakefile:
-
- % ls
- Rakefile test/
- % rake
- (in /home/some_user/Projects/rake)
- ruby test/unittest.rb
- ....unit test output here...
-
-Type "rake --help" for all available options.
-
-
-=== More Information
-
-* For details on Rake's command-line invocation, read
- doc/command_line_usage.rdoc[http://rake.rubyforge.org/files/doc/command_line_usage_rdoc.html]
-* For details on writing Rakefiles, see
- doc/rakefile.rdoc[http://rake.rubyforge.org/files/doc/rakefile_rdoc.html].
-* For the original announcement of Rake, see
- doc/rational.rdoc[http://rake.rubyforge.org/files/doc/rational_rdoc.html].
-* For a glossary of terms, see
- doc/glossary.rdoc[http://rake.rubyforge.org/files/doc/glossary_rdoc.html].
-
-
-== Development
-
-=== Source Repository
-
-Rake is currently hosted at github. The github web page is
-http://github.com/jimweirich/rake. The public git clone URL is
-
-* git://github.com/jimweirich/rake.git
-
-=== Running the Rake Test Suite
-
-If you wish to run the unit and functional tests that come with Rake:
-
-* Install the 'session' gem in order to run the functional tests.
-* CD into the top project directory of rake.
-* Type one of the following:
-
- rake # If you have a version of rake installed
- ruby -Ilib bin/rake # If you do not have a version of rake installed.
-
-=== Issues and Bug Reports
-
-Bugs, features requests and other issues can be logged at
-
-* http://onestepback.org/redmine/projects/show/rake
-
-You will need an account to before you can post issues. Register at
-http://onestepback.org/redmine/account/register. Or you can send me
-an email (at jim dot weirich at gmail dot com)
-
-
-== Online Resources
-
-=== Rake References
-
-* Rake Documentation Home: http://docs.rubyrake.org
-* Rake Project Page: http://rubyforge.org/projects/rake
-* Rake API Documents: http://rake.rubyforge.org
-* Rake Source Code Repo: http://github.com/jimweirich/rake
-* Rake Git Repo Clone URL: git://github.com/jimweirich/rake.git
-
-=== Presentations and Articles about Rake
-
-* Jim Weirich's 2003 RubyConf presentation: http://onestepback.org/articles/buildingwithrake/
-* Martin Fowler's article on Rake: http://martinfowler.com/articles/rake.html
-
-== Other Make Reinvisionings ...
-
-Rake is a late entry in the make replacement field. Here are links to
-other projects with similar (and not so similar) goals.
-
-* http://directory.fsf.org/bras.html -- Bras, one of earliest
- implementations of "make in a scripting language".
-* http://www.a-a-p.org -- Make in Python
-* http://www.aromatic.com/tools/jam.txt -- JAM, Java Automated Make
-* http://ant.apache.org -- The Ant project
-* http://ppt.perl.org/commands/make/index.html -- Make from the Perl
- Power Tools implementation.
-* http://search.cpan.org/search?query=PerlBuildSystem -- The Perl Build System
-* http://make.rubyforge.org -- Rant, another Ruby make tool.
-
-== Credits
-
-[<b>Ryan Dlugosz</b>] For the initial conversation that sparked Rake.
-
-[<b>nobu.nokada@softhome.net</b>] For the initial patch for rule support.
-
-[<b>Tilman Sauerbeck <tilman@code-monkey.de></b>] For the recursive rule patch.
-
-== License
-
-Rake is available under an MIT-style license.
-
-:include: MIT-LICENSE
-
-== Support
-
-The Rake homepage is http://rake.rubyforge.org. You can find the Rake
-RubyForge page at http://rubyforge.org/projects/rake.
-
-Feel free to submit commits or feature requests. If you send a patch,
-remember to update the corresponding unit tests. If fact, I prefer
-new feature to be submitted in the form of new unit tests.
-
-For other information, feel free to ask on the ruby-talk mailing list
-(which is mirrored to comp.lang.ruby) or contact
-jim dot weirich at gmail.com.
-
----
-
-= Other stuff
-
-Author:: Jim Weirich <jim.weirich@gmail.com>
-Requires:: Ruby 1.8.0 or later
-License:: Copyright 2003-2008 by Jim Weirich.
- Released under an MIT-style license. See the LICENSE file
- included in the distribution.
-
-== Warranty
-
-This software is provided "as is" and without any express or
-implied warranties, including, without limitation, the implied
-warranties of merchantibility and fitness for a particular
-purpose.
diff --git a/doc/rake/command_line_usage.rdoc b/doc/rake/command_line_usage.rdoc
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-= Rake Command Line Usage
-
-Rake is invoked from the command line using:
-
- % rake [options ...] [VAR=VALUE ...] [targets ...]
-
-Options are:
-
-[<tt><em>name</em>=<em>value</em></tt>]
- Set the environment variable <em>name</em> to <em>value</em>
- during the execution of the <b>rake</b> command. You can access
- the value by using ENV['<em>name</em>'].
-
-[<tt>--all</tt> (-A)]
- Used in combination with the -T and -D options, will force
- those options to show all the tasks, even the ones without comments.
-
-[<tt>--backtrace</tt>{=_output_} (-n)]
- Enable a full backtrace (i.e. like --trace, but without the task
- tracing details). The _output_ parameter is optional, but if
- specified it controls where the backtrace output is sent. If
- _output_ is <tt>stdout</tt>, then backtrace output is directed to
- stardard output. If _output_ is <tt>stderr</tt>, or if it is
- missing, then the backtrace output is sent to standard error.
-
-[<tt>--classic-namespace</tt> (-n)]
- Import the Task, FileTask, and FileCreateTask into the top-level
- scope to be compatible with older versions of Rake. Alternatively
- you can include the line <code>require
- 'rake/classic_namespace'</code> in your Rakefile to get the
- classic behavior.
-
-[<tt>--comments</tt>]
- Used in combination with the -W options to force the output to
- contain commented options only. This is the reverse of
- <tt>--all</tt>.
-
-[<tt>--describe</tt> _pattern_ (-D)]
- Describe the tasks (matching optional PATTERN), then exit.
-
-[<tt>--dry-run</tt> (-n)]
- Do a dry run. Print the tasks invoked and executed, but do not
- actually execute any of the actions.
-
-[<tt>--execute</tt> _code_ (-e)]
- Execute some Ruby code and exit.
-
-[<tt>--execute-print</tt> _code_ (-p)]
- Execute some Ruby code, print the result, and exit.
-
-[<tt>--execute-continue</tt> _code_ (-E)]
- Execute some Ruby code, then continue with normal task processing.
-
-[<tt>--help</tt> (-H)]
- Display some help text and exit.
-
-[<tt>--jobs</tt> _number_ (-j)]
- Specifies the number of active concurrent tasks used. The
- suggested value is equal to the number of CPUs. The concurrent
- tasks are used to execute the <tt>multitask</tt> prerequisites.
- Also see the <tt>-m</tt> option which turns all tasks into
- multitasks.
-
- Sample values:
- (no -j) : unlimited concurrent tasks (standard rake behavior)
- -j : 2 concurrent tasks (exact number may change)
- -j 16 : 16 concurrent tasks
-
-[<tt>--job-stats</tt> _level_]
-
- Display job statistics at the completion of the run. By default,
- this will display the requested number of active tasks (from the
- -j options) and the maximum number of tasks in play at any given
- time.
-
- If the optional _level_ is <tt>history</tt>, then a complete trace
- of task history will be displayed on standard output.
-
-[<tt>--libdir</tt> _directory_ (-I)]
- Add _directory_ to the list of directories searched for require.
-
-[<tt>--multitask</tt> (-m)]
- Treat all tasks as multitasks. ('make/drake' semantics)
-
-[<tt>--nosearch</tt> (-N)]
- Do not search for a Rakefile in parent directories.
-
-[<tt>--prereqs</tt> (-P)]
- Display a list of all tasks and their immediate prerequisites.
-
-[<tt>--quiet</tt> (-q)]
- Do not echo commands from FileUtils.
-
-[<tt>--rakefile</tt> _filename_ (-f)]
- Use _filename_ as the name of the rakefile. The default rakefile
- names are +rakefile+ and +Rakefile+ (with +rakefile+ taking
- precedence). If the rakefile is not found in the current
- directory, +rake+ will search parent directories for a match. The
- directory where the Rakefile is found will become the current
- directory for the actions executed in the Rakefile.
-
-[<tt>--rakelibdir</tt> _rakelibdir_ (-R)]
- Auto-import any .rake files in RAKELIBDIR. (default is 'rakelib')
-
-[<tt>--reduce-compat</tt>]
-
- Remove the DSL commands from the Object inheritance hierarchy and
- do not define top level constants. This reduces the backwards
- compatibility of Rake, but allows rake to be used with software
- that would otherwise have conflicting definitions.
-
- *NOTE:* The next major version of Rake will only be able to be run
- in "reduce-compat" mode.
-
-[<tt>--require</tt> _name_ (-r)]
- Require _name_ before executing the Rakefile.
-
-[<tt>--rules</tt>]
- Trace the rules resolution.
-
-[<tt>--silent (-s)</tt>]
- Like --quiet, but also suppresses the 'in directory' announcement.
-
-[<tt>--suppress-backtrace _pattern_ </tt>]
- Line matching the regular expression _pattern_ will be removed
- from the backtrace output. Note that the --backtrace option is the
- full backtrace without these lines suppressed.
-
-[<tt>--system</tt> (-g)]
- Use the system wide (global) rakefiles. The project Rakefile is
- ignored. By default, the system wide rakefiles are used only if no
- project Rakefile is found. On Unix-like system, the system wide
- rake files are located in $HOME/.rake. On a windows system they
- are stored in $APPDATA/Rake.
-
-[<tt>--no-system</tt> (-G)]
- Use the project level Rakefile, ignoring the system-wide (global)
- rakefiles.
-
-[<tt>--tasks</tt> <em>pattern</em> (-T)]
- Display a list of the major tasks and their comments. Comments
- are defined using the "desc" command. If a pattern is given, then
- only tasks matching the pattern are displayed.
-
-[<tt>--trace</tt>{=_output_} (-t)]
- Turn on invoke/execute tracing. Also enable full backtrace on
- errors. The _output_ parameter is optional, but if specified it
- controls where the trace output is sent. If _output_ is
- <tt>stdout</tt>, then trace output is directed to stardard output.
- If _output_ is <tt>stderr</tt>, or if it is missing, then trace
- output is sent to standard error.
-
-[<tt>--verbose</tt> (-v)]
- Echo the Sys commands to standard output.
-
-[<tt>--version</tt> (-V)]
- Display the program version and exit.
-
-[<tt>--where</tt> <em>pattern</em> (-W)]
- Display tasks that match <em>pattern</em> and the file and line
- number where the task is defined. By default this option will
- display all tasks, not just the tasks that have descriptions.
-
-[<tt>--no-deprecation-warnings</tt> (-W)]
- Do not display the deprecation warnings.
-
-In addition, any command line option of the form
-<em>VAR</em>=<em>VALUE</em> will be added to the environment hash
-<tt>ENV</tt> and may be tested in the Rakefile.
diff --git a/doc/rake/glossary.rdoc b/doc/rake/glossary.rdoc
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-= Glossary
-
-[<b>action</b>]
- Code to be executed in order to perform a task. Actions in a
- rakefile are specified in a code block (usually delimited by
- +do+/+end+ pairs.
-
-[<b>execute</b>]
- When a task is executed, all of its actions are performed, in
- the order they were defined. Note that unlike
- <tt>invoke</tt>, <tt>execute</tt> always executes the actions
- (without invoking or executing the prerequisites).
-
-[<b>file task</b> (FileTask)]
- A file task is a task whose purpose is to create a file
- (which has the same name as the task). When invoked, a file
- task will only execute if one or more of the following
- conditions are true.
-
- 1. The associated file does not exist.
- 2. A prerequisite has a later time stamp than the existing file.
-
- Because normal Tasks always have the current time as
- timestamp, a FileTask that has a normal Task prerequisite
- will always execute.
-
-[<b>invoke</b>]
- When a task is invoked, first we check to see if it has been
- invoked before. if it has been, then nothing else is done.
- If this is the first time its been invoked, then we invoke
- each of its prerequisites. Finally, we check to see if we
- need to execute the actions of this task by calling
- <tt>needed?</tt>. Finally, if the task is needed, we execute
- its actions.
-
- NOTE: Currently prerequisites are invoked even if the task is
- not needed. This may change in the future.
-
-[<b>prerequisites</b>]
- Every task has a set (possibly empty) of prerequisites. A
- prerequisite P to Task T is itself a task that must be invoked
- before Task T.
-
-[<b>rule</b>]
- A rule is a recipe for synthesizing a task when no task is
- explicitly defined. Rules generally synthesize file tasks.
-
-[<b>task</b> (Task)]
- Basic unit of work in a rakefile. A task has a name, a set of
- prerequisites and a list of actions to be performed.
-
diff --git a/doc/rake/rakefile.rdoc b/doc/rake/rakefile.rdoc
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-= Rakefile Format (as of version 0.8.7)
-
-First of all, there is no special format for a Rakefile. A Rakefile
-contains executable Ruby code. Anything legal in a ruby script is
-allowed in a Rakefile.
-
-Now that we understand there is no special syntax in a Rakefile, there
-are some conventions that are used in a Rakefile that are a little
-unusual in a typical Ruby program. Since a Rakefile is tailored to
-specifying tasks and actions, the idioms used in a Rakefile are
-designed to support that.
-
-So, what goes into a Rakefile?
-
-== Tasks
-
-Tasks are the main unit of work in a Rakefile. Tasks have a name
-(usually given as a symbol or a string), a list of prerequisites (more
-symbols or strings) and a list of actions (given as a block).
-
-=== Simple Tasks
-
-A task is declared by using the +task+ method. +task+ takes a single
-parameter that is the name of the task.
-
- task :name
-
-=== Tasks with Prerequisites
-
-Any prerequisites are given as a list (enclosed in square brackets)
-following the name and an arrow (=>).
-
- task :name => [:prereq1, :prereq2]
-
-<b>NOTE:</b> Although this syntax looks a little funky, it is legal
-Ruby. We are constructing a hash where the key is :name and the value
-for that key is the list of prerequisites. It is equivalent to the
-following ...
-
- hash = Hash.new
- hash[:name] = [:prereq1, :prereq2]
- task(hash)
-
-=== Tasks with Actions
-
-Actions are defined by passing a block to the +task+ method. Any Ruby
-code can be placed in the block. The block may reference the task
-object via the block parameter.
-
- task :name => [:prereq1, :prereq2] do |t|
- # actions (may reference t)
- end
-
-=== Multiple Definitions
-
-A task may be specified more than once. Each specification adds its
-prerequisites and actions to the existing definition. This allows one
-part of a rakefile to specify the actions and a different rakefile
-(perhaps separately generated) to specify the dependencies.
-
-For example, the following is equivalent to the single task
-specification given above.
-
- task :name
- task :name => [:prereq1]
- task :name => [:prereq2]
- task :name do |t|
- # actions
- end
-
-== File Tasks
-
-Some tasks are designed to create a file from one or more other files.
-Tasks that generate these files may be skipped if the file already
-exists. File tasks are used to specify file creation tasks.
-
-File tasks are declared using the +file+ method (instead of the +task+
-method). In addition, file tasks are usually named with a string
-rather than a symbol.
-
-The following file task creates a executable program (named +prog+)
-given two object files name <tt>a.o</tt> and <tt>b.o</tt>. The tasks
-for creating <tt>a.o</tt> and <tt>b.o</tt> are not shown.
-
- file "prog" => ["a.o", "b.o"] do |t|
- sh "cc -o #{t.name} #{t.prerequisites.join(' ')}"
- end
-
-== Directory Tasks
-
-It is common to need to create directories upon demand. The
-+directory+ convenience method is a short-hand for creating a FileTask
-that creates the directory. For example, the following declaration
-...
-
- directory "testdata/examples/doc"
-
-is equivalent to ...
-
- file "testdata" do |t| mkdir t.name end
- file "testdata/examples" do |t| mkdir t.name end
- file "testdata/examples/doc" do |t| mkdir t.name end
-
-The +directory+ method does not accept prerequisites or actions, but
-both prerequisites and actions can be added later. For example ...
-
- directory "testdata"
- file "testdata" => ["otherdata"]
- file "testdata" do
- cp Dir["standard_data/*.data"], "testdata"
- end
-
-== Tasks with Parallel Prerequisites
-
-Rake allows parallel execution of prerequisites using the following syntax:
-
- multitask :copy_files => [:copy_src, :copy_doc, :copy_bin] do
- puts "All Copies Complete"
- end
-
-In this example, +copy_files+ is a normal rake task. Its actions are
-executed whenever all of its prerequisites are done. The big
-difference is that the prerequisites (+copy_src+, +copy_bin+ and
-+copy_doc+) are executed in parallel. Each of the prerequisites are
-run in their own Ruby thread, possibly allowing faster overall runtime.
-
-=== Secondary Prerequisites
-
-If any of the primary prerequisites of a multitask have common secondary
-prerequisites, all of the primary/parallel prerequisites will wait
-until the common prerequisites have been run.
-
-For example, if the <tt>copy_<em>xxx</em></tt> tasks have the
-following prerequisites:
-
- task :copy_src => [:prep_for_copy]
- task :copy_bin => [:prep_for_copy]
- task :copy_doc => [:prep_for_copy]
-
-Then the +prep_for_copy+ task is run before starting all the copies in
-parallel. Once +prep_for_copy+ is complete, +copy_src+, +copy_bin+,
-and +copy_doc+ are all run in parallel. Note that +prep_for_copy+ is
-run only once, even though it is referenced in multiple threads.
-
-=== Thread Safety
-
-The Rake internal data structures are thread-safe with respect
-to the multitask parallel execution, so there is no need for the user
-to do extra synchronization for Rake's benefit. However, if there are
-user data structures shared between the parallel prerequisites, the
-user must do whatever is necessary to prevent race conditions.
-
-== Tasks with Arguments
-
-Prior to version 0.8.0, rake was only able to handle command line
-arguments of the form NAME=VALUE that were passed into Rake via the
-ENV hash. Many folks had asked for some kind of simple command line
-arguments, perhaps using "--" to separate regular task names from
-argument values on the command line. The problem is that there was no
-easy way to associate positional arguments on the command line with
-different tasks. Suppose both tasks :a and :b expect a command line
-argument: does the first value go with :a? What if :b is run first?
-Should it then get the first command line argument.
-
-Rake 0.8.0 solves this problem by explicitly passing values directly
-to the tasks that need them. For example, if I had a release task
-that required a version number, I could say:
-
- rake release[0.8.2]
-
-And the string "0.8.2" will be passed to the :release task. Multiple
-arguments can be passed by separating them with a comma, for example:
-
- rake name[john,doe]
-
-Just a few words of caution. The rake task name and its arguments
-need to be a single command line argument to rake. This generally
-means no spaces. If spaces are needed, then the entire rake +
-argument string should be quoted. Something like this:
-
- rake "name[billy bob, smith]"
-
-(Quoting rules vary between operating systems and shells, so make sure
-you consult the proper docs for your OS/shell).
-
-=== Tasks Arguments and the Environment
-
-Task argument values can also be picked up from the environment. For
-example, if the "release" task expected a parameter named
-"release_version", then either
-
- rake release[0.8.2]
-
-or
-
- RELEASE_VERSION rake release
-
-will work. Environment variable names must either match the task
-parameter exactly, or match an all-uppercase version of the task
-parameter.
-
-=== Tasks that Expect Parameters
-
-Parameters are only given to tasks that are setup to expect them. In
-order to handle named parameters, the task declaration syntax for
-tasks has been extended slightly.
-
-For example, a task that needs a first name and last name might be
-declared as:
-
- task :name, [:first_name, :last_name]
-
-The first argument is still the name of the task (:name in this case).
-The next two arguments are the names of the parameters expected by
-:name in an array (:first_name and :last_name in the example).
-
-To access the values of the parameters, the block defining the task
-behaviour can now accept a second parameter:
-
- task :name, [:first_name, :last_name] do |t, args|
- puts "First name is #{args.first_name}"
- puts "Last name is #{args.last_name}"
- end
-
-The first argument of the block "t" is always bound to the current
-task object. The second argument "args" is an open-struct like object
-that allows access to the task arguments. Extra command line
-arguments to a task are ignored. Missing command line arguments are
-picked up from matching environment variables. If there are no
-matching environment variables, they are given the nil value.
-
-If you wish to specify default values for the arguments, you can use
-the with_defaults method in the task body. Here is the above example
-where we specify default values for the first and last names:
-
- task :name, [:first_name, :last_name] do |t, args|
- args.with_defaults(:first_name => "John", :last_name => "Dough")
- puts "First name is #{args.first_name}"
- puts "Last name is #{args.last_name}"
- end
-
-=== Tasks that Expect Parameters and Have Prerequisites
-
-Tasks that use parameters have a slightly different format for
-prerequisites. Use the arrow notation to indicate the prerequisites
-for tasks with arguments. For example:
-
- task :name, [:first_name, :last_name] => [:pre_name] do |t, args|
- args.with_defaults(:first_name => "John", :last_name => "Dough")
- puts "First name is #{args.first_name}"
- puts "Last name is #{args.last_name}"
- end
-
-=== Deprecated Task Parameters Format
-
-There is an older format for declaring task parameters that omitted
-the task argument array and used the :needs keyword to introduce the
-dependencies. That format is still supported for compatibility, but
-is not recommended for use. The older format may be dropped in future
-versions of rake.
-
-== Accessing Task Programmatically
-
-Sometimes it is useful to manipulate tasks programmatically in a
-Rakefile. To find a task object, use the <tt>:[]</tt> operator on the
-<tt>Rake::Task</tt>.
-
-=== Programmatic Task Example
-
-For example, the following Rakefile defines two tasks. The :doit task
-simply prints a simple "DONE" message. The :dont class will lookup
-the doit class and remove (clear) all of its prerequisites and
-actions.
-
- task :doit do
- puts "DONE"
- end
-
- task :dont do
- Rake::Task[:doit].clear
- end
-
-Running this example:
-
- $ rake doit
- (in /Users/jim/working/git/rake/x)
- DONE
- $ rake dont doit
- (in /Users/jim/working/git/rake/x)
- $
-
-The ability to programmatically manipulate tasks gives rake very
-powerful meta-programming capabilities w.r.t. task execution, but
-should be used with cation.
-
-== Rules
-
-When a file is named as a prerequisite, but does not have a file task
-defined for it, Rake will attempt to synthesize a task by looking at a
-list of rules supplied in the Rakefile.
-
-Suppose we were trying to invoke task "mycode.o", but no task is
-defined for it. But the rakefile has a rule that look like this ...
-
- rule '.o' => ['.c'] do |t|
- sh "cc #{t.source} -c -o #{t.name}"
- end
-
-This rule will synthesize any task that ends in ".o". It has a
-prerequisite a source file with an extension of ".c" must exist. If
-Rake is able to find a file named "mycode.c", it will automatically
-create a task that builds "mycode.o" from "mycode.c".
-
-If the file "mycode.c" does not exist, rake will attempt
-to recursively synthesize a rule for it.
-
-When a task is synthesized from a rule, the +source+ attribute of the
-task is set to the matching source file. This allows us to write
-rules with actions that reference the source file.
-
-=== Advanced Rules
-
-Any regular expression may be used as the rule pattern. Additionally,
-a proc may be used to calculate the name of the source file. This
-allows for complex patterns and sources.
-
-The following rule is equivalent to the example above.
-
- rule( /\.o$/ => [
- proc {|task_name| task_name.sub(/\.[^.]+$/, '.c') }
- ]) do |t|
- sh "cc #{t.source} -c -o #{t.name}"
- end
-
-<b>NOTE:</b> Because of a _quirk_ in Ruby syntax, parenthesis are
-required on *rule* when the first argument is a regular expression.
-
-The following rule might be used for Java files ...
-
- rule '.java' => [
- proc { |tn| tn.sub(/\.class$/, '.java').sub(/^classes\//, 'src/') }
- ] do |t|
- java_compile(t.source, t.name)
- end
-
-<b>NOTE:</b> +java_compile+ is a hypothetical method that invokes the
-java compiler.
-
-== Importing Dependencies
-
-Any ruby file (including other rakefiles) can be included with a
-standard Ruby +require+ command. The rules and declarations in the
-required file are just added to the definitions already accumulated.
-
-Because the files are loaded _before_ the rake targets are evaluated,
-the loaded files must be "ready to go" when the rake command is
-invoked. This make generated dependency files difficult to use. By
-the time rake gets around to updating the dependencies file, it is too
-late to load it.
-
-The +Rake.import+ command addresses this by specifying a file to be
-loaded _after_ the main rakefile is loaded, but _before_ any targets
-on the command line are invoked. In addition, if the file name
-matches an explicit task, that task is invoked before loading the
-file. This allows dependency files to be generated and used in a
-single rake command invocation.
-
-<b>NOTE:</b> Starting in Rake version 0.9.0, the top level +import+
-command is deprecated and we recommend using the scoped
-"+Rake.import+" command mentioned above. Future versions of Rake will
-drop support for the top level +import+ command.
-
-=== Example:
-
- require 'rake/loaders/makefile'
-
- file ".depends.mf" => [SRC_LIST] do |t|
- sh "makedepend -f- -- #{CFLAGS} -- #{t.prerequisites} > #{t.name}"
- end
-
- Rake.import ".depends.mf"
-
-If ".depends" does not exist, or is out of date w.r.t. the source
-files, a new ".depends" file is generated using +makedepend+ before
-loading.
-
-== Comments
-
-Standard Ruby comments (beginning with "#") can be used anywhere it is
-legal in Ruby source code, including comments for tasks and rules.
-However, if you wish a task to be described using the "-T" switch,
-then you need to use the +desc+ command to describe the task.
-
-=== Example:
-
- desc "Create a distribution package"
- task :package => [ ... ] do ... end
-
-The "-T" switch (or "--tasks" if you like to spell things out) will
-display a list of tasks that have a description. If you use +desc+ to
-describe your major tasks, you have a semi-automatic way of generating
-a summary of your Rake file.
-
- traken$ rake -T
- (in /home/.../rake)
- rake clean # Remove any temporary products.
- rake clobber # Remove any generated file.
- rake clobber_rdoc # Remove rdoc products
- rake contrib_test # Run tests for contrib_test
- rake default # Default Task
- rake install # Install the application
- rake lines # Count lines in the main rake file
- rake rdoc # Build the rdoc HTML Files
- rake rerdoc # Force a rebuild of the RDOC files
- rake test # Run tests
- rake testall # Run all test targets
-
-Only tasks with descriptions will be displayed with the "-T" switch.
-Use "-P" (or "--prereqs") to get a list of all tasks and their
-prerequisites.
-
-== Namespaces
-
-As projects grow (and along with it, the number of tasks), it is
-common for task names to begin to clash. For example, if you might
-have a main program and a set of sample programs built by a single
-Rakefile. By placing the tasks related to the main program in one
-namespace, and the tasks for building the sample programs in a
-different namespace, the task names will not will not interfere with
-each other.
-
-For example:
-
- namespace "main" do
- task :build do
- # Build the main program
- end
- end
-
- namespace "samples" do
- task :build do
- # Build the sample programs
- end
- end
-
- task :build => ["main:build", "samples:build"]
-
-Referencing a task in a separate namespace can be achieved by
-prefixing the task name with the namespace and a colon
-(e.g. "main:build" refers to the :build task in the +main+ namespace).
-Nested namespaces are supported, so
-
-Note that the name given in the +task+ command is always the unadorned
-task name without any namespace prefixes. The +task+ command always
-defines a task in the current namespace.
-
-=== FileTasks
-
-File task names are not scoped by the namespace command. Since the
-name of a file task is the name of an actual file in the file system,
-it makes little sense to include file task names in name space.
-Directory tasks (created by the +directory+ command) are a type of
-file task and are also not affected by namespaces.
-
-=== Name Resolution
-
-When looking up a task name, rake will start with the current
-namespace and attempt to find the name there. If it fails to find a
-name in the current namespace, it will search the parent namespaces
-until a match is found (or an error occurs if there is no match).
-
-The "rake" namespace is a special implicit namespace that refers to
-the toplevel names.
-
-If a task name begins with a "^" character, the name resolution will
-start in the parent namespace. Multiple "^" characters are allowed.
-
-Here is an example file with multiple :run tasks and how various names
-resolve in different locations.
-
- task :run
-
- namespace "one" do
- task :run
-
- namespace "two" do
- task :run
-
- # :run => "one:two:run"
- # "two:run" => "one:two:run"
- # "one:two:run" => "one:two:run"
- # "one:run" => "one:run"
- # "^run" => "one:run"
- # "^^run" => "rake:run" (the top level task)
- # "rake:run" => "rake:run" (the top level task)
- end
-
- # :run => "one:run"
- # "two:run" => "one:two:run"
- # "^run" => "rake:run"
- end
-
- # :run => "rake:run"
- # "one:run" => "one:run"
- # "one:two:run" => "one:two:run"
-
-== FileLists
-
-FileLists are the way Rake manages lists of files. You can treat a
-FileList as an array of strings for the most part, but FileLists
-support some additional operations.
-
-=== Creating a FileList
-
-Creating a file list is easy. Just give it the list of file names:
-
- fl = FileList['file1.rb', file2.rb']
-
-Or give it a glob pattern:
-
- fl = FileList['*.rb']
-
-== Odds and Ends
-
-=== do/end versus { }
-
-Blocks may be specified with either a +do+/+end+ pair, or with curly
-braces in Ruby. We _strongly_ recommend using +do+/+end+ to specify the
-actions for tasks and rules. Because the rakefile idiom tends to
-leave off parentheses on the task/file/rule methods, unusual
-ambiguities can arise when using curly braces.
-
-For example, suppose that the method +object_files+ returns a list of
-object files in a project. Now we use +object_files+ as the
-prerequisites in a rule specified with actions in curly braces.
-
- # DON'T DO THIS!
- file "prog" => object_files {
- # Actions are expected here (but it doesn't work)!
- }
-
-Because curly braces have a higher precedence than +do+/+end+, the
-block is associated with the +object_files+ method rather than the
-+file+ method.
-
-This is the proper way to specify the task ...
-
- # THIS IS FINE
- file "prog" => object_files do
- # Actions go here
- end
-
-----
-
-== See
-
-* README.rdoc -- Main documentation for Rake.
diff --git a/doc/rake/rational.rdoc b/doc/rake/rational.rdoc
deleted file mode 100644
index 0e1c338..0000000
--- a/doc/rake/rational.rdoc
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,151 +0,0 @@
-= Why rake?
-
-Ok, let me state from the beginning that I never intended to write this
-code. I'm not convinced it is useful, and I'm not convinced anyone
-would even be interested in it. All I can say is that Why's onion truck
-must by been passing through the Ohio valley.
-
-What am I talking about? ... A Ruby version of Make.
-
-See, I can sense you cringing already, and I agree. The world certainly
-doesn't need yet another reworking of the "make" program. I mean, we
-already have "ant". Isn't that enough?
-
-It started yesterday. I was helping a coworker fix a problem in one of
-the Makefiles we use in our project. Not a particularly tough problem,
-but during the course of the conversation I began lamenting some of the
-shortcomings of make. In particular, in one of my makefiles I wanted to
-determine the name of a file dynamically and had to resort to some
-simple scripting (in Ruby) to make it work. "Wouldn't it be nice if you
-could just use Ruby inside a Makefile" I said.
-
-My coworker (a recent convert to Ruby) agreed, but wondered what it
-would look like. So I sketched the following on the whiteboard...
-
- "What if you could specify the make tasks in Ruby, like this ..."
-
- task "build" do
- java_compile(...args, etc ...)
- end
-
- "The task function would register "build" as a target to be made,
- and the block would be the action executed whenever the build
- system determined that it was time to do the build target."
-
-We agreed that would be cool, but writing make from scratch would be WAY
-too much work. And that was the end of that!
-
-... Except I couldn't get the thought out of my head. What exactly
-would be needed to make the about syntax work as a make file? Hmmm, you
-would need to register the tasks, you need some way of specifying
-dependencies between tasks, and some way of kicking off the process.
-Hey! What if we did ... and fifteen minutes later I had a working
-prototype of Ruby make, complete with dependencies and actions.
-
-I showed the code to my coworker and we had a good laugh. It was just
-about a page worth of code that reproduced an amazing amount of the
-functionality of make. We were both truly stunned with the power of
-Ruby.
-
-But it didn't do everything make did. In particular, it didn't have
-timestamp based file dependencies (where a file is rebuilt if any of its
-prerequisite files have a later timestamp). Obviously THAT would be a
-pain to add and so Ruby Make would remain an interesting experiment.
-
-... Except as I walked back to my desk, I started thinking about what
-file based dependencies would really need. Rats! I was hooked again,
-and by adding a new class and two new methods, file/timestamp
-dependencies were implemented.
-
-Ok, now I was really hooked. Last night (during CSI!) I massaged the
-code and cleaned it up a bit. The result is a bare-bones replacement
-for make in exactly 100 lines of code.
-
-For the curious, you can see it at ...
-* doc/proto_rake.rdoc
-
-Oh, about the name. When I wrote the example Ruby Make task on my
-whiteboard, my coworker exclaimed "Oh! I have the perfect name: Rake ...
-Get it? Ruby-Make. Rake!" He said he envisioned the tasks as leaves
-and Rake would clean them up ... or something like that. Anyways, the
-name stuck.
-
-Some quick examples ...
-
-A simple task to delete backup files ...
-
- task :clean do
- Dir['*~'].each {|fn| rm fn rescue nil}
- end
-
-Note that task names are symbols (they are slightly easier to type
-than quoted strings ... but you may use quoted string if you would
-rather). Rake makes the methods of the FileUtils module directly
-available, so we take advantage of the <tt>rm</tt> command. Also note
-the use of "rescue nil" to trap and ignore errors in the <tt>rm</tt>
-command.
-
-To run it, just type "rake clean". Rake will automatically find a
-Rakefile in the current directory (or above!) and will invoke the
-targets named on the command line. If there are no targets explicitly
-named, rake will invoke the task "default".
-
-Here's another task with dependencies ...
-
- task :clobber => [:clean] do
- rm_r "tempdir"
- end
-
-Task :clobber depends upon task :clean, so :clean will be run before
-:clobber is executed.
-
-Files are specified by using the "file" command. It is similar to the
-task command, except that the task name represents a file, and the task
-will be run only if the file doesn't exist, or if its modification time
-is earlier than any of its prerequisites.
-
-Here is a file based dependency that will compile "hello.cc" to
-"hello.o".
-
- file "hello.cc"
- file "hello.o" => ["hello.cc"] do |t|
- srcfile = t.name.sub(/\.o$/, ".cc")
- sh %{g++ #{srcfile} -c -o #{t.name}}
- end
-
-I normally specify file tasks with string (rather than symbols). Some
-file names can't be represented by symbols. Plus it makes the
-distinction between them more clear to the casual reader.
-
-Currently writing a task for each and every file in the project would be
-tedious at best. I envision a set of libraries to make this job
-easier. For instance, perhaps something like this ...
-
- require 'rake/ctools'
- Dir['*.c'].each do |fn|
- c_source_file(fn)
- end
-
-where "c_source_file" will create all the tasks need to compile all the
-C source files in a directory. Any number of useful libraries could be
-created for rake.
-
-That's it. There's no documentation (other than whats in this
-message). Does this sound interesting to anyone? If so, I'll continue
-to clean it up and write it up and publish it on RAA. Otherwise, I'll
-leave it as an interesting exercise and a tribute to the power of Ruby.
-
-Why /might/ rake be interesting to Ruby programmers. I don't know,
-perhaps ...
-
-* No weird make syntax (only weird Ruby syntax :-)
-* No need to edit or read XML (a la ant)
-* Platform independent build scripts.
-* Will run anywhere Ruby exists, so no need to have "make" installed.
- If you stay away from the "sys" command and use things like
- 'ftools', you can have a perfectly platform independent
- build script. Also rake is only 100 lines of code, so it can
- easily be packaged along with the rest of your code.
-
-So ... Sorry for the long rambling message. Like I said, I never
-intended to write this code at all.