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authorhsbt <hsbt@b2dd03c8-39d4-4d8f-98ff-823fe69b080e>2018-11-02 23:07:56 (GMT)
committerhsbt <hsbt@b2dd03c8-39d4-4d8f-98ff-823fe69b080e>2018-11-02 23:07:56 (GMT)
commit59c8d50653480bef3f24517296e6ddf937fdf6bc (patch)
treedf10aaf4f3307837fe3d1d129d66f6c0c7586bc5 /man/gemfile.5.ronn
parent7deb37777a230837e865e0a11fb8d7c1dc6d03ce (diff)
Added bundler as default gems. Revisit [Feature #12733]
* bin/*, lib/bundler/*, lib/bundler.rb, spec/bundler, man/*: Merge from latest stable branch of bundler/bundler repository and added workaround patches. I will backport them into upstream. * common.mk, defs/gmake.mk: Added `test-bundler` task for test suite of bundler. * tool/sync_default_gems.rb: Added sync task for bundler. git-svn-id: svn+ssh://ci.ruby-lang.org/ruby/trunk@65509 b2dd03c8-39d4-4d8f-98ff-823fe69b080e
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+Gemfile(5) -- A format for describing gem dependencies for Ruby programs
+========================================================================
+
+## SYNOPSIS
+
+A `Gemfile` describes the gem dependencies required to execute associated
+Ruby code.
+
+Place the `Gemfile` in the root of the directory containing the associated
+code. For instance, in a Rails application, place the `Gemfile` in the same
+directory as the `Rakefile`.
+
+## SYNTAX
+
+A `Gemfile` is evaluated as Ruby code, in a context which makes available
+a number of methods used to describe the gem requirements.
+
+## GLOBAL SOURCES
+
+At the top of the `Gemfile`, add a line for the `Rubygems` source that contains
+the gems listed in the `Gemfile`.
+
+ source "https://rubygems.org"
+
+It is possible, but not recommended as of Bundler 1.7, to add multiple global
+`source` lines. Each of these `source`s `MUST` be a valid Rubygems repository.
+
+Sources are checked for gems following the heuristics described in
+[SOURCE PRIORITY][]. If a gem is found in more than one global source, Bundler
+will print a warning after installing the gem indicating which source was used,
+and listing the other sources where the gem is available. A specific source can
+be selected for gems that need to use a non-standard repository, suppressing
+this warning, by using the [`:source` option](#SOURCE) or a
+[`source` block](#BLOCK-FORM-OF-SOURCE-GIT-PATH-GROUP-and-PLATFORMS).
+
+### CREDENTIALS
+
+Some gem sources require a username and password. Use [bundle config(1)](bundle-config.1.html) to set
+the username and password for any of the sources that need it. The command must
+be run once on each computer that will install the Gemfile, but this keeps the
+credentials from being stored in plain text in version control.
+
+ bundle config gems.example.com user:password
+
+For some sources, like a company Gemfury account, it may be easier to
+include the credentials in the Gemfile as part of the source URL.
+
+ source "https://user:password@gems.example.com"
+
+Credentials in the source URL will take precedence over credentials set using
+`config`.
+
+## RUBY
+
+If your application requires a specific Ruby version or engine, specify your
+requirements using the `ruby` method, with the following arguments.
+All parameters are `OPTIONAL` unless otherwise specified.
+
+### VERSION (required)
+
+The version of Ruby that your application requires. If your application
+requires an alternate Ruby engine, such as JRuby, Rubinius or TruffleRuby, this
+should be the Ruby version that the engine is compatible with.
+
+ ruby "1.9.3"
+
+### ENGINE
+
+Each application _may_ specify a Ruby engine. If an engine is specified, an
+engine version _must_ also be specified.
+
+What exactly is an Engine?
+ - A Ruby engine is an implementation of the Ruby language.
+
+ - For background: the reference or original implementation of the Ruby
+ programming language is called
+ [Matz's Ruby Interpreter](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruby_MRI), or MRI
+ for short. This is named after Ruby creator Yukihiro Matsumoto,
+ also known as Matz. MRI is also known as CRuby, because it is written in C.
+ MRI is the most widely used Ruby engine.
+
+ - [Other implementations](https://www.ruby-lang.org/en/about/) of Ruby exist.
+ Some of the more well-known implementations include
+ [Rubinius](https://rubinius.com/), and [JRuby](http://jruby.org/).
+ Rubinius is an alternative implementation of Ruby written in Ruby.
+ JRuby is an implementation of Ruby on the JVM, short for Java Virtual Machine.
+
+### ENGINE VERSION
+
+Each application _may_ specify a Ruby engine version. If an engine version is
+specified, an engine _must_ also be specified. If the engine is "ruby" the
+engine version specified _must_ match the Ruby version.
+
+ ruby "1.8.7", :engine => "jruby", :engine_version => "1.6.7"
+
+### PATCHLEVEL
+
+Each application _may_ specify a Ruby patchlevel.
+
+ ruby "2.0.0", :patchlevel => "247"
+
+## GEMS
+
+Specify gem requirements using the `gem` method, with the following arguments.
+All parameters are `OPTIONAL` unless otherwise specified.
+
+### NAME (required)
+
+For each gem requirement, list a single _gem_ line.
+
+ gem "nokogiri"
+
+### VERSION
+
+Each _gem_ `MAY` have one or more version specifiers.
+
+ gem "nokogiri", ">= 1.4.2"
+ gem "RedCloth", ">= 4.1.0", "< 4.2.0"
+
+### REQUIRE AS
+
+Each _gem_ `MAY` specify files that should be used when autorequiring via
+`Bundler.require`. You may pass an array with multiple files or `true` if file
+you want `required` has same name as _gem_ or `false` to
+prevent any file from being autorequired.
+
+ gem "redis", :require => ["redis/connection/hiredis", "redis"]
+ gem "webmock", :require => false
+ gem "debugger", :require => true
+
+The argument defaults to the name of the gem. For example, these are identical:
+
+ gem "nokogiri"
+ gem "nokogiri", :require => "nokogiri"
+ gem "nokogiri", :require => true
+
+### GROUPS
+
+Each _gem_ `MAY` specify membership in one or more groups. Any _gem_ that does
+not specify membership in any group is placed in the `default` group.
+
+ gem "rspec", :group => :test
+ gem "wirble", :groups => [:development, :test]
+
+The Bundler runtime allows its two main methods, `Bundler.setup` and
+`Bundler.require`, to limit their impact to particular groups.
+
+ # setup adds gems to Ruby's load path
+ Bundler.setup # defaults to all groups
+ require "bundler/setup" # same as Bundler.setup
+ Bundler.setup(:default) # only set up the _default_ group
+ Bundler.setup(:test) # only set up the _test_ group (but `not` _default_)
+ Bundler.setup(:default, :test) # set up the _default_ and _test_ groups, but no others
+
+ # require requires all of the gems in the specified groups
+ Bundler.require # defaults to the _default_ group
+ Bundler.require(:default) # identical
+ Bundler.require(:default, :test) # requires the _default_ and _test_ groups
+ Bundler.require(:test) # requires the _test_ group
+
+The Bundler CLI allows you to specify a list of groups whose gems `bundle install` should
+not install with the `--without` option. To specify multiple groups to ignore, specify a
+list of groups separated by spaces.
+
+ bundle install --without test
+ bundle install --without development test
+
+After running `bundle install --without test`, bundler will remember that you excluded
+the test group in the last installation. The next time you run `bundle install`,
+without any `--without option`, bundler will recall it.
+
+Also, calling `Bundler.setup` with no parameters, or calling `require "bundler/setup"`
+will setup all groups except for the ones you excluded via `--without` (since they
+are not available).
+
+Note that on `bundle install`, bundler downloads and evaluates all gems, in order to
+create a single canonical list of all of the required gems and their dependencies.
+This means that you cannot list different versions of the same gems in different
+groups. For more details, see [Understanding Bundler](http://bundler.io/rationale.html).
+
+### PLATFORMS
+
+If a gem should only be used in a particular platform or set of platforms, you can
+specify them. Platforms are essentially identical to groups, except that you do not
+need to use the `--without` install-time flag to exclude groups of gems for other
+platforms.
+
+There are a number of `Gemfile` platforms:
+
+ * `ruby`:
+ C Ruby (MRI), Rubinius or TruffleRuby, but `NOT` Windows
+ * `mri`:
+ Same as _ruby_, but only C Ruby (MRI)
+ * `mingw`:
+ Windows 32 bit 'mingw32' platform (aka RubyInstaller)
+ * `x64_mingw`:
+ Windows 64 bit 'mingw32' platform (aka RubyInstaller x64)
+ * `rbx`:
+ Rubinius
+ * `jruby`:
+ JRuby
+ * `truffleruby`:
+ TruffleRuby
+ * `mswin`:
+ Windows
+
+You can restrict further by platform and version for all platforms *except* for
+`rbx`, `jruby`, `truffleruby` and `mswin`.
+
+To specify a version in addition to a platform, append the version number without
+the delimiter to the platform. For example, to specify that a gem should only be
+used on platforms with Ruby 2.3, use:
+
+ ruby_23
+
+The full list of platforms and supported versions includes:
+
+ * `ruby`:
+ 1.8, 1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5
+ * `mri`:
+ 1.8, 1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5
+ * `mingw`:
+ 1.8, 1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5
+ * `x64_mingw`:
+ 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5
+
+As with groups, you can specify one or more platforms:
+
+ gem "weakling", :platforms => :jruby
+ gem "ruby-debug", :platforms => :mri_18
+ gem "nokogiri", :platforms => [:mri_18, :jruby]
+
+All operations involving groups ([`bundle install`](bundle-install.1.html), `Bundler.setup`,
+`Bundler.require`) behave exactly the same as if any groups not
+matching the current platform were explicitly excluded.
+
+### SOURCE
+
+You can select an alternate Rubygems repository for a gem using the ':source'
+option.
+
+ gem "some_internal_gem", :source => "https://gems.example.com"
+
+This forces the gem to be loaded from this source and ignores any global sources
+declared at the top level of the file. If the gem does not exist in this source,
+it will not be installed.
+
+Bundler will search for child dependencies of this gem by first looking in the
+source selected for the parent, but if they are not found there, it will fall
+back on global sources using the ordering described in [SOURCE PRIORITY][].
+
+Selecting a specific source repository this way also suppresses the ambiguous
+gem warning described above in
+[GLOBAL SOURCES (#source)](#GLOBAL-SOURCES).
+
+Using the `:source` option for an individual gem will also make that source
+available as a possible global source for any other gems which do not specify
+explicit sources. Thus, when adding gems with explicit sources, it is
+recommended that you also ensure all other gems in the Gemfile are using
+explicit sources.
+
+### GIT
+
+If necessary, you can specify that a gem is located at a particular
+git repository using the `:git` parameter. The repository can be accessed via
+several protocols:
+
+ * `HTTP(S)`:
+ gem "rails", :git => "https://github.com/rails/rails.git"
+ * `SSH`:
+ gem "rails", :git => "git@github.com:rails/rails.git"
+ * `git`:
+ gem "rails", :git => "git://github.com/rails/rails.git"
+
+If using SSH, the user that you use to run `bundle install` `MUST` have the
+appropriate keys available in their `$HOME/.ssh`.
+
+`NOTE`: `http://` and `git://` URLs should be avoided if at all possible. These
+protocols are unauthenticated, so a man-in-the-middle attacker can deliver
+malicious code and compromise your system. HTTPS and SSH are strongly
+preferred.
+
+The `group`, `platforms`, and `require` options are available and behave
+exactly the same as they would for a normal gem.
+
+A git repository `SHOULD` have at least one file, at the root of the
+directory containing the gem, with the extension `.gemspec`. This file
+`MUST` contain a valid gem specification, as expected by the `gem build`
+command.
+
+If a git repository does not have a `.gemspec`, bundler will attempt to
+create one, but it will not contain any dependencies, executables, or
+C extension compilation instructions. As a result, it may fail to properly
+integrate into your application.
+
+If a git repository does have a `.gemspec` for the gem you attached it
+to, a version specifier, if provided, means that the git repository is
+only valid if the `.gemspec` specifies a version matching the version
+specifier. If not, bundler will print a warning.
+
+ gem "rails", "2.3.8", :git => "https://github.com/rails/rails.git"
+ # bundle install will fail, because the .gemspec in the rails
+ # repository's master branch specifies version 3.0.0
+
+If a git repository does `not` have a `.gemspec` for the gem you attached
+it to, a version specifier `MUST` be provided. Bundler will use this
+version in the simple `.gemspec` it creates.
+
+Git repositories support a number of additional options.
+
+ * `branch`, `tag`, and `ref`:
+ You `MUST` only specify at most one of these options. The default
+ is `:branch => "master"`
+ * For example:
+
+ git "https://github.com/rails/rails.git", :branch => "5-0-stable" do
+
+ git "https://github.com/rails/rails.git", :tag => "v5.0.0" do
+
+ git "https://github.com/rails/rails.git", :ref => "4aded" do
+
+ * `submodules`:
+ For reference, a [git submodule](https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Git-Tools-Submodules)
+ lets you have another git repository within a subfolder of your repository.
+ Specify `:submodules => true` to cause bundler to expand any
+ submodules included in the git repository
+
+If a git repository contains multiple `.gemspecs`, each `.gemspec`
+represents a gem located at the same place in the file system as
+the `.gemspec`.
+
+ |~rails [git root]
+ | |-rails.gemspec [rails gem located here]
+ |~actionpack
+ | |-actionpack.gemspec [actionpack gem located here]
+ |~activesupport
+ | |-activesupport.gemspec [activesupport gem located here]
+ |...
+
+To install a gem located in a git repository, bundler changes to
+the directory containing the gemspec, runs `gem build name.gemspec`
+and then installs the resulting gem. The `gem build` command,
+which comes standard with Rubygems, evaluates the `.gemspec` in
+the context of the directory in which it is located.
+
+### GIT SOURCE
+
+A custom git source can be defined via the `git_source` method. Provide the source's name
+as an argument, and a block which receives a single argument and interpolates it into a
+string to return the full repo address:
+
+ git_source(:stash){ |repo_name| "https://stash.corp.acme.pl/#{repo_name}.git" }
+ gem 'rails', :stash => 'forks/rails'
+
+In addition, if you wish to choose a specific branch:
+
+ gem "rails", :stash => "forks/rails", :branch => "branch_name"
+
+### GITHUB
+
+`NOTE`: This shorthand should be avoided until Bundler 2.0, since it
+currently expands to an insecure `git://` URL. This allows a
+man-in-the-middle attacker to compromise your system.
+
+If the git repository you want to use is hosted on GitHub and is public, you can use the
+:github shorthand to specify the github username and repository name (without the
+trailing ".git"), separated by a slash. If both the username and repository name are the
+same, you can omit one.
+
+ gem "rails", :github => "rails/rails"
+ gem "rails", :github => "rails"
+
+Are both equivalent to
+
+ gem "rails", :git => "git://github.com/rails/rails.git"
+
+Since the `github` method is a specialization of `git_source`, it accepts a `:branch` named argument.
+
+### GIST
+
+If the git repository you want to use is hosted as a Github Gist and is public, you can use
+the :gist shorthand to specify the gist identifier (without the trailing ".git").
+
+ gem "the_hatch", :gist => "4815162342"
+
+Is equivalent to:
+
+ gem "the_hatch", :git => "https://gist.github.com/4815162342.git"
+
+Since the `gist` method is a specialization of `git_source`, it accepts a `:branch` named argument.
+
+### BITBUCKET
+
+If the git repository you want to use is hosted on Bitbucket and is public, you can use the
+:bitbucket shorthand to specify the bitbucket username and repository name (without the
+trailing ".git"), separated by a slash. If both the username and repository name are the
+same, you can omit one.
+
+ gem "rails", :bitbucket => "rails/rails"
+ gem "rails", :bitbucket => "rails"
+
+Are both equivalent to
+
+ gem "rails", :git => "https://rails@bitbucket.org/rails/rails.git"
+
+Since the `bitbucket` method is a specialization of `git_source`, it accepts a `:branch` named argument.
+
+### PATH
+
+You can specify that a gem is located in a particular location
+on the file system. Relative paths are resolved relative to the
+directory containing the `Gemfile`.
+
+Similar to the semantics of the `:git` option, the `:path`
+option requires that the directory in question either contains
+a `.gemspec` for the gem, or that you specify an explicit
+version that bundler should use.
+
+Unlike `:git`, bundler does not compile C extensions for
+gems specified as paths.
+
+ gem "rails", :path => "vendor/rails"
+
+If you would like to use multiple local gems directly from the filesystem, you can set a global `path` option to the path containing the gem's files. This will automatically load gemspec files from subdirectories.
+
+ path 'components' do
+ gem 'admin_ui'
+ gem 'public_ui'
+ end
+
+## BLOCK FORM OF SOURCE, GIT, PATH, GROUP and PLATFORMS
+
+The `:source`, `:git`, `:path`, `:group`, and `:platforms` options may be
+applied to a group of gems by using block form.
+
+ source "https://gems.example.com" do
+ gem "some_internal_gem"
+ gem "another_internal_gem"
+ end
+
+ git "https://github.com/rails/rails.git" do
+ gem "activesupport"
+ gem "actionpack"
+ end
+
+ platforms :ruby do
+ gem "ruby-debug"
+ gem "sqlite3"
+ end
+
+ group :development, :optional => true do
+ gem "wirble"
+ gem "faker"
+ end
+
+In the case of the group block form the :optional option can be given
+to prevent a group from being installed unless listed in the `--with`
+option given to the `bundle install` command.
+
+In the case of the `git` block form, the `:ref`, `:branch`, `:tag`,
+and `:submodules` options may be passed to the `git` method, and
+all gems in the block will inherit those options.
+
+The presence of a `source` block in a Gemfile also makes that source
+available as a possible global source for any other gems which do not specify
+explicit sources. Thus, when defining source blocks, it is
+recommended that you also ensure all other gems in the Gemfile are using
+explicit sources, either via source blocks or `:source` directives on
+individual gems.
+
+## INSTALL_IF
+
+The `install_if` method allows gems to be installed based on a proc or lambda.
+This is especially useful for optional gems that can only be used if certain
+software is installed or some other conditions are met.
+
+ install_if -> { RUBY_PLATFORM =~ /darwin/ } do
+ gem "pasteboard"
+ end
+
+## GEMSPEC
+
+The [`.gemspec`](http://guides.rubygems.org/specification-reference/) file is where
+ you provide metadata about your gem to Rubygems. Some required Gemspec
+ attributes include the name, description, and homepage of your gem. This is
+ also where you specify the dependencies your gem needs to run.
+
+If you wish to use Bundler to help install dependencies for a gem while it is
+being developed, use the `gemspec` method to pull in the dependencies listed in
+the `.gemspec` file.
+
+The `gemspec` method adds any runtime dependencies as gem requirements in the
+default group. It also adds development dependencies as gem requirements in the
+`development` group. Finally, it adds a gem requirement on your project (`:path
+=> '.'`). In conjunction with `Bundler.setup`, this allows you to require project
+files in your test code as you would if the project were installed as a gem; you
+need not manipulate the load path manually or require project files via relative
+paths.
+
+The `gemspec` method supports optional `:path`, `:glob`, `:name`, and `:development_group`
+options, which control where bundler looks for the `.gemspec`, the glob it uses to look
+for the gemspec (defaults to: "{,*,*/*}.gemspec"), what named `.gemspec` it uses
+(if more than one is present), and which group development dependencies are included in.
+
+When a `gemspec` dependency encounters version conflicts during resolution, the
+local version under development will always be selected -- even if there are
+remote versions that better match other requirements for the `gemspec` gem.
+
+## SOURCE PRIORITY
+
+When attempting to locate a gem to satisfy a gem requirement,
+bundler uses the following priority order:
+
+ 1. The source explicitly attached to the gem (using `:source`, `:path`, or
+ `:git`)
+ 2. For implicit gems (dependencies of explicit gems), any source, git, or path
+ repository declared on the parent. This results in bundler prioritizing the
+ ActiveSupport gem from the Rails git repository over ones from
+ `rubygems.org`
+ 3. The sources specified via global `source` lines, searching each source in
+ your `Gemfile` from last added to first added.