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authorzzak <zzak@b2dd03c8-39d4-4d8f-98ff-823fe69b080e>2013-02-10 05:26:34 +0000
committerzzak <zzak@b2dd03c8-39d4-4d8f-98ff-823fe69b080e>2013-02-10 05:26:34 +0000
commit2bfa96ec848f9c8e27006776be17e2f818e58761 (patch)
tree8ff9893e9b9f59a2f42ce1c2f70f60c7e86f6d66 /lib/rake/doc
parenta00c92f7fc5bb4b3f50e600da1280f0ed456bb22 (diff)
* doc/rake/, lib/rake/doc/: Move Rake rdoc files to lib/rake
git-svn-id: svn+ssh://ci.ruby-lang.org/ruby/trunk@39185 b2dd03c8-39d4-4d8f-98ff-823fe69b080e
Diffstat (limited to 'lib/rake/doc')
-rw-r--r--lib/rake/doc/README196
-rw-r--r--lib/rake/doc/command_line_usage.rdoc169
-rw-r--r--lib/rake/doc/glossary.rdoc51
-rw-r--r--lib/rake/doc/rakefile.rdoc557
-rw-r--r--lib/rake/doc/rational.rdoc151
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diff --git a/lib/rake/doc/README b/lib/rake/doc/README
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+= RAKE -- Ruby Make
+
+Supporting Rake version: 0.8.6
+
+This package contains Rake, a simple ruby build program with
+capabilities similar to make.
+
+Rake has the following features:
+
+* Rakefiles (rake's version of Makefiles) are completely defined in
+ standard Ruby syntax. No XML files to edit. No quirky Makefile
+ syntax to worry about (is that a tab or a space?)
+
+* Users can specify tasks with prerequisites.
+
+* Rake supports rule patterns to synthesize implicit tasks.
+
+* Flexible FileLists that act like arrays but know about manipulating
+ file names and paths.
+
+* A library of prepackaged tasks to make building rakefiles easier. For example,
+ tasks for building tarballs, gems and RDoc output are provided.
+
+* Supports parallel execution of tasks.
+
+
+== Installation
+
+=== Gem Installation
+
+Download and install rake with the following.
+
+ gem install rake
+
+=== Normal Installation
+
+You can download the source tarball of the latest version of Rake from
+
+* http://rubyforge.org/project/showfiles.php?group_id=50
+
+Extract the tarball and run
+
+ % ruby install.rb
+
+from its distribution directory.
+
+== Usage
+
+=== Simple Example
+
+First, you must write a "Rakefile" file which contains the build rules. Here's
+a simple example:
+
+ task :default => [:test]
+
+ task :test do
+ ruby "test/unittest.rb"
+ end
+
+This Rakefile has two tasks:
+
+* A task named "test", which - upon invocation - will run a unit test file in
+ Ruby.
+* A task named "default". This task does nothing by itself, but it has exactly
+ one dependency, namely the "test" task. Invoking the "default" task will
+ cause Rake to invoke the "test" task as well.
+
+Running the "rake" command without any options will cause it to run the
+"default" task in the Rakefile:
+
+ % ls
+ Rakefile test/
+ % rake
+ (in /home/some_user/Projects/rake)
+ ruby test/unittest.rb
+ ....unit test output here...
+
+Type "rake --help" for all available options.
+
+
+=== More Information
+
+* For details on Rake's command-line invocation, read
+ doc/command_line_usage.rdoc[http://rake.rubyforge.org/files/doc/command_line_usage_rdoc.html]
+* For details on writing Rakefiles, see
+ doc/rakefile.rdoc[http://rake.rubyforge.org/files/doc/rakefile_rdoc.html].
+* For the original announcement of Rake, see
+ doc/rational.rdoc[http://rake.rubyforge.org/files/doc/rational_rdoc.html].
+* For a glossary of terms, see
+ doc/glossary.rdoc[http://rake.rubyforge.org/files/doc/glossary_rdoc.html].
+
+
+== Development
+
+=== Source Repository
+
+Rake is currently hosted at github. The github web page is
+http://github.com/jimweirich/rake. The public git clone URL is
+
+* git://github.com/jimweirich/rake.git
+
+=== Running the Rake Test Suite
+
+If you wish to run the unit and functional tests that come with Rake:
+
+* Install the 'session' gem in order to run the functional tests.
+* CD into the top project directory of rake.
+* Type one of the following:
+
+ rake # If you have a version of rake installed
+ ruby -Ilib bin/rake # If you do not have a version of rake installed.
+
+=== Issues and Bug Reports
+
+Bugs, features requests and other issues can be logged at
+
+* http://onestepback.org/redmine/projects/show/rake
+
+You will need an account to before you can post issues. Register at
+http://onestepback.org/redmine/account/register. Or you can send me
+an email (at jim dot weirich at gmail dot com)
+
+
+== Online Resources
+
+=== Rake References
+
+* Rake Documentation Home: http://docs.rubyrake.org
+* Rake Project Page: http://rubyforge.org/projects/rake
+* Rake API Documents: http://rake.rubyforge.org
+* Rake Source Code Repo: http://github.com/jimweirich/rake
+* Rake Git Repo Clone URL: git://github.com/jimweirich/rake.git
+
+=== Presentations and Articles about Rake
+
+* Jim Weirich's 2003 RubyConf presentation: http://onestepback.org/articles/buildingwithrake/
+* Martin Fowler's article on Rake: http://martinfowler.com/articles/rake.html
+
+== Other Make Reinvisionings ...
+
+Rake is a late entry in the make replacement field. Here are links to
+other projects with similar (and not so similar) goals.
+
+* http://directory.fsf.org/bras.html -- Bras, one of earliest
+ implementations of "make in a scripting language".
+* http://www.a-a-p.org -- Make in Python
+* http://www.aromatic.com/tools/jam.txt -- JAM, Java Automated Make
+* http://ant.apache.org -- The Ant project
+* http://ppt.perl.org/commands/make/index.html -- Make from the Perl
+ Power Tools implementation.
+* http://search.cpan.org/search?query=PerlBuildSystem -- The Perl Build System
+* http://make.rubyforge.org -- Rant, another Ruby make tool.
+
+== Credits
+
+[<b>Ryan Dlugosz</b>] For the initial conversation that sparked Rake.
+
+[<b>nobu.nokada@softhome.net</b>] For the initial patch for rule support.
+
+[<b>Tilman Sauerbeck <tilman@code-monkey.de></b>] For the recursive rule patch.
+
+== License
+
+Rake is available under an MIT-style license.
+
+:include: MIT-LICENSE
+
+== Support
+
+The Rake homepage is http://rake.rubyforge.org. You can find the Rake
+RubyForge page at http://rubyforge.org/projects/rake.
+
+Feel free to submit commits or feature requests. If you send a patch,
+remember to update the corresponding unit tests. If fact, I prefer
+new feature to be submitted in the form of new unit tests.
+
+For other information, feel free to ask on the ruby-talk mailing list
+(which is mirrored to comp.lang.ruby) or contact
+jim dot weirich at gmail.com.
+
+---
+
+= Other stuff
+
+Author:: Jim Weirich <jim.weirich@gmail.com>
+Requires:: Ruby 1.8.0 or later
+License:: Copyright 2003-2008 by Jim Weirich.
+ Released under an MIT-style license. See the LICENSE file
+ included in the distribution.
+
+== Warranty
+
+This software is provided "as is" and without any express or
+implied warranties, including, without limitation, the implied
+warranties of merchantibility and fitness for a particular
+purpose.
diff --git a/lib/rake/doc/command_line_usage.rdoc b/lib/rake/doc/command_line_usage.rdoc
new file mode 100644
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+= Rake Command Line Usage
+
+Rake is invoked from the command line using:
+
+ % rake [options ...] [VAR=VALUE ...] [targets ...]
+
+Options are:
+
+[<tt><em>name</em>=<em>value</em></tt>]
+ Set the environment variable <em>name</em> to <em>value</em>
+ during the execution of the <b>rake</b> command. You can access
+ the value by using ENV['<em>name</em>'].
+
+[<tt>--all</tt> (-A)]
+ Used in combination with the -T and -D options, will force
+ those options to show all the tasks, even the ones without comments.
+
+[<tt>--backtrace</tt>{=_output_} (-n)]
+ Enable a full backtrace (i.e. like --trace, but without the task
+ tracing details). The _output_ parameter is optional, but if
+ specified it controls where the backtrace output is sent. If
+ _output_ is <tt>stdout</tt>, then backtrace output is directed to
+ stardard output. If _output_ is <tt>stderr</tt>, or if it is
+ missing, then the backtrace output is sent to standard error.
+
+[<tt>--classic-namespace</tt> (-n)]
+ Import the Task, FileTask, and FileCreateTask into the top-level
+ scope to be compatible with older versions of Rake. Alternatively
+ you can include the line <code>require
+ 'rake/classic_namespace'</code> in your Rakefile to get the
+ classic behavior.
+
+[<tt>--comments</tt>]
+ Used in combination with the -W options to force the output to
+ contain commented options only. This is the reverse of
+ <tt>--all</tt>.
+
+[<tt>--describe</tt> _pattern_ (-D)]
+ Describe the tasks (matching optional PATTERN), then exit.
+
+[<tt>--dry-run</tt> (-n)]
+ Do a dry run. Print the tasks invoked and executed, but do not
+ actually execute any of the actions.
+
+[<tt>--execute</tt> _code_ (-e)]
+ Execute some Ruby code and exit.
+
+[<tt>--execute-print</tt> _code_ (-p)]
+ Execute some Ruby code, print the result, and exit.
+
+[<tt>--execute-continue</tt> _code_ (-E)]
+ Execute some Ruby code, then continue with normal task processing.
+
+[<tt>--help</tt> (-H)]
+ Display some help text and exit.
+
+[<tt>--jobs</tt> _number_ (-j)]
+ Specifies the number of active concurrent tasks used. The
+ suggested value is equal to the number of CPUs. The concurrent
+ tasks are used to execute the <tt>multitask</tt> prerequisites.
+ Also see the <tt>-m</tt> option which turns all tasks into
+ multitasks.
+
+ Sample values:
+ (no -j) : unlimited concurrent tasks (standard rake behavior)
+ -j : 2 concurrent tasks (exact number may change)
+ -j 16 : 16 concurrent tasks
+
+[<tt>--job-stats</tt> _level_]
+
+ Display job statistics at the completion of the run. By default,
+ this will display the requested number of active tasks (from the
+ -j options) and the maximum number of tasks in play at any given
+ time.
+
+ If the optional _level_ is <tt>history</tt>, then a complete trace
+ of task history will be displayed on standard output.
+
+[<tt>--libdir</tt> _directory_ (-I)]
+ Add _directory_ to the list of directories searched for require.
+
+[<tt>--multitask</tt> (-m)]
+ Treat all tasks as multitasks. ('make/drake' semantics)
+
+[<tt>--nosearch</tt> (-N)]
+ Do not search for a Rakefile in parent directories.
+
+[<tt>--prereqs</tt> (-P)]
+ Display a list of all tasks and their immediate prerequisites.
+
+[<tt>--quiet</tt> (-q)]
+ Do not echo commands from FileUtils.
+
+[<tt>--rakefile</tt> _filename_ (-f)]
+ Use _filename_ as the name of the rakefile. The default rakefile
+ names are +rakefile+ and +Rakefile+ (with +rakefile+ taking
+ precedence). If the rakefile is not found in the current
+ directory, +rake+ will search parent directories for a match. The
+ directory where the Rakefile is found will become the current
+ directory for the actions executed in the Rakefile.
+
+[<tt>--rakelibdir</tt> _rakelibdir_ (-R)]
+ Auto-import any .rake files in RAKELIBDIR. (default is 'rakelib')
+
+[<tt>--reduce-compat</tt>]
+
+ Remove the DSL commands from the Object inheritance hierarchy and
+ do not define top level constants. This reduces the backwards
+ compatibility of Rake, but allows rake to be used with software
+ that would otherwise have conflicting definitions.
+
+ *NOTE:* The next major version of Rake will only be able to be run
+ in "reduce-compat" mode.
+
+[<tt>--require</tt> _name_ (-r)]
+ Require _name_ before executing the Rakefile.
+
+[<tt>--rules</tt>]
+ Trace the rules resolution.
+
+[<tt>--silent (-s)</tt>]
+ Like --quiet, but also suppresses the 'in directory' announcement.
+
+[<tt>--suppress-backtrace _pattern_ </tt>]
+ Line matching the regular expression _pattern_ will be removed
+ from the backtrace output. Note that the --backtrace option is the
+ full backtrace without these lines suppressed.
+
+[<tt>--system</tt> (-g)]
+ Use the system wide (global) rakefiles. The project Rakefile is
+ ignored. By default, the system wide rakefiles are used only if no
+ project Rakefile is found. On Unix-like system, the system wide
+ rake files are located in $HOME/.rake. On a windows system they
+ are stored in $APPDATA/Rake.
+
+[<tt>--no-system</tt> (-G)]
+ Use the project level Rakefile, ignoring the system-wide (global)
+ rakefiles.
+
+[<tt>--tasks</tt> <em>pattern</em> (-T)]
+ Display a list of the major tasks and their comments. Comments
+ are defined using the "desc" command. If a pattern is given, then
+ only tasks matching the pattern are displayed.
+
+[<tt>--trace</tt>{=_output_} (-t)]
+ Turn on invoke/execute tracing. Also enable full backtrace on
+ errors. The _output_ parameter is optional, but if specified it
+ controls where the trace output is sent. If _output_ is
+ <tt>stdout</tt>, then trace output is directed to stardard output.
+ If _output_ is <tt>stderr</tt>, or if it is missing, then trace
+ output is sent to standard error.
+
+[<tt>--verbose</tt> (-v)]
+ Echo the Sys commands to standard output.
+
+[<tt>--version</tt> (-V)]
+ Display the program version and exit.
+
+[<tt>--where</tt> <em>pattern</em> (-W)]
+ Display tasks that match <em>pattern</em> and the file and line
+ number where the task is defined. By default this option will
+ display all tasks, not just the tasks that have descriptions.
+
+[<tt>--no-deprecation-warnings</tt> (-W)]
+ Do not display the deprecation warnings.
+
+In addition, any command line option of the form
+<em>VAR</em>=<em>VALUE</em> will be added to the environment hash
+<tt>ENV</tt> and may be tested in the Rakefile.
diff --git a/lib/rake/doc/glossary.rdoc b/lib/rake/doc/glossary.rdoc
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+= Glossary
+
+[<b>action</b>]
+ Code to be executed in order to perform a task. Actions in a
+ rakefile are specified in a code block (usually delimited by
+ +do+/+end+ pairs.
+
+[<b>execute</b>]
+ When a task is executed, all of its actions are performed, in
+ the order they were defined. Note that unlike
+ <tt>invoke</tt>, <tt>execute</tt> always executes the actions
+ (without invoking or executing the prerequisites).
+
+[<b>file task</b> (FileTask)]
+ A file task is a task whose purpose is to create a file
+ (which has the same name as the task). When invoked, a file
+ task will only execute if one or more of the following
+ conditions are true.
+
+ 1. The associated file does not exist.
+ 2. A prerequisite has a later time stamp than the existing file.
+
+ Because normal Tasks always have the current time as
+ timestamp, a FileTask that has a normal Task prerequisite
+ will always execute.
+
+[<b>invoke</b>]
+ When a task is invoked, first we check to see if it has been
+ invoked before. if it has been, then nothing else is done.
+ If this is the first time its been invoked, then we invoke
+ each of its prerequisites. Finally, we check to see if we
+ need to execute the actions of this task by calling
+ <tt>needed?</tt>. Finally, if the task is needed, we execute
+ its actions.
+
+ NOTE: Currently prerequisites are invoked even if the task is
+ not needed. This may change in the future.
+
+[<b>prerequisites</b>]
+ Every task has a set (possibly empty) of prerequisites. A
+ prerequisite P to Task T is itself a task that must be invoked
+ before Task T.
+
+[<b>rule</b>]
+ A rule is a recipe for synthesizing a task when no task is
+ explicitly defined. Rules generally synthesize file tasks.
+
+[<b>task</b> (Task)]
+ Basic unit of work in a rakefile. A task has a name, a set of
+ prerequisites and a list of actions to be performed.
+
diff --git a/lib/rake/doc/rakefile.rdoc b/lib/rake/doc/rakefile.rdoc
new file mode 100644
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+= Rakefile Format (as of version 0.8.7)
+
+First of all, there is no special format for a Rakefile. A Rakefile
+contains executable Ruby code. Anything legal in a ruby script is
+allowed in a Rakefile.
+
+Now that we understand there is no special syntax in a Rakefile, there
+are some conventions that are used in a Rakefile that are a little
+unusual in a typical Ruby program. Since a Rakefile is tailored to
+specifying tasks and actions, the idioms used in a Rakefile are
+designed to support that.
+
+So, what goes into a Rakefile?
+
+== Tasks
+
+Tasks are the main unit of work in a Rakefile. Tasks have a name
+(usually given as a symbol or a string), a list of prerequisites (more
+symbols or strings) and a list of actions (given as a block).
+
+=== Simple Tasks
+
+A task is declared by using the +task+ method. +task+ takes a single
+parameter that is the name of the task.
+
+ task :name
+
+=== Tasks with Prerequisites
+
+Any prerequisites are given as a list (enclosed in square brackets)
+following the name and an arrow (=>).
+
+ task :name => [:prereq1, :prereq2]
+
+<b>NOTE:</b> Although this syntax looks a little funky, it is legal
+Ruby. We are constructing a hash where the key is :name and the value
+for that key is the list of prerequisites. It is equivalent to the
+following ...
+
+ hash = Hash.new
+ hash[:name] = [:prereq1, :prereq2]
+ task(hash)
+
+=== Tasks with Actions
+
+Actions are defined by passing a block to the +task+ method. Any Ruby
+code can be placed in the block. The block may reference the task
+object via the block parameter.
+
+ task :name => [:prereq1, :prereq2] do |t|
+ # actions (may reference t)
+ end
+
+=== Multiple Definitions
+
+A task may be specified more than once. Each specification adds its
+prerequisites and actions to the existing definition. This allows one
+part of a rakefile to specify the actions and a different rakefile
+(perhaps separately generated) to specify the dependencies.
+
+For example, the following is equivalent to the single task
+specification given above.
+
+ task :name
+ task :name => [:prereq1]
+ task :name => [:prereq2]
+ task :name do |t|
+ # actions
+ end
+
+== File Tasks
+
+Some tasks are designed to create a file from one or more other files.
+Tasks that generate these files may be skipped if the file already
+exists. File tasks are used to specify file creation tasks.
+
+File tasks are declared using the +file+ method (instead of the +task+
+method). In addition, file tasks are usually named with a string
+rather than a symbol.
+
+The following file task creates a executable program (named +prog+)
+given two object files name <tt>a.o</tt> and <tt>b.o</tt>. The tasks
+for creating <tt>a.o</tt> and <tt>b.o</tt> are not shown.
+
+ file "prog" => ["a.o", "b.o"] do |t|
+ sh "cc -o #{t.name} #{t.prerequisites.join(' ')}"
+ end
+
+== Directory Tasks
+
+It is common to need to create directories upon demand. The
++directory+ convenience method is a short-hand for creating a FileTask
+that creates the directory. For example, the following declaration
+...
+
+ directory "testdata/examples/doc"
+
+is equivalent to ...
+
+ file "testdata" do |t| mkdir t.name end
+ file "testdata/examples" do |t| mkdir t.name end
+ file "testdata/examples/doc" do |t| mkdir t.name end
+
+The +directory+ method does not accept prerequisites or actions, but
+both prerequisites and actions can be added later. For example ...
+
+ directory "testdata"
+ file "testdata" => ["otherdata"]
+ file "testdata" do
+ cp Dir["standard_data/*.data"], "testdata"
+ end
+
+== Tasks with Parallel Prerequisites
+
+Rake allows parallel execution of prerequisites using the following syntax:
+
+ multitask :copy_files => [:copy_src, :copy_doc, :copy_bin] do
+ puts "All Copies Complete"
+ end
+
+In this example, +copy_files+ is a normal rake task. Its actions are
+executed whenever all of its prerequisites are done. The big
+difference is that the prerequisites (+copy_src+, +copy_bin+ and
++copy_doc+) are executed in parallel. Each of the prerequisites are
+run in their own Ruby thread, possibly allowing faster overall runtime.
+
+=== Secondary Prerequisites
+
+If any of the primary prerequisites of a multitask have common secondary
+prerequisites, all of the primary/parallel prerequisites will wait
+until the common prerequisites have been run.
+
+For example, if the <tt>copy_<em>xxx</em></tt> tasks have the
+following prerequisites:
+
+ task :copy_src => [:prep_for_copy]
+ task :copy_bin => [:prep_for_copy]
+ task :copy_doc => [:prep_for_copy]
+
+Then the +prep_for_copy+ task is run before starting all the copies in
+parallel. Once +prep_for_copy+ is complete, +copy_src+, +copy_bin+,
+and +copy_doc+ are all run in parallel. Note that +prep_for_copy+ is
+run only once, even though it is referenced in multiple threads.
+
+=== Thread Safety
+
+The Rake internal data structures are thread-safe with respect
+to the multitask parallel execution, so there is no need for the user
+to do extra synchronization for Rake's benefit. However, if there are
+user data structures shared between the parallel prerequisites, the
+user must do whatever is necessary to prevent race conditions.
+
+== Tasks with Arguments
+
+Prior to version 0.8.0, rake was only able to handle command line
+arguments of the form NAME=VALUE that were passed into Rake via the
+ENV hash. Many folks had asked for some kind of simple command line
+arguments, perhaps using "--" to separate regular task names from
+argument values on the command line. The problem is that there was no
+easy way to associate positional arguments on the command line with
+different tasks. Suppose both tasks :a and :b expect a command line
+argument: does the first value go with :a? What if :b is run first?
+Should it then get the first command line argument.
+
+Rake 0.8.0 solves this problem by explicitly passing values directly
+to the tasks that need them. For example, if I had a release task
+that required a version number, I could say:
+
+ rake release[0.8.2]
+
+And the string "0.8.2" will be passed to the :release task. Multiple
+arguments can be passed by separating them with a comma, for example:
+
+ rake name[john,doe]
+
+Just a few words of caution. The rake task name and its arguments
+need to be a single command line argument to rake. This generally
+means no spaces. If spaces are needed, then the entire rake +
+argument string should be quoted. Something like this:
+
+ rake "name[billy bob, smith]"
+
+(Quoting rules vary between operating systems and shells, so make sure
+you consult the proper docs for your OS/shell).
+
+=== Tasks Arguments and the Environment
+
+Task argument values can also be picked up from the environment. For
+example, if the "release" task expected a parameter named
+"release_version", then either
+
+ rake release[0.8.2]
+
+or
+
+ RELEASE_VERSION rake release
+
+will work. Environment variable names must either match the task
+parameter exactly, or match an all-uppercase version of the task
+parameter.
+
+=== Tasks that Expect Parameters
+
+Parameters are only given to tasks that are setup to expect them. In
+order to handle named parameters, the task declaration syntax for
+tasks has been extended slightly.
+
+For example, a task that needs a first name and last name might be
+declared as:
+
+ task :name, [:first_name, :last_name]
+
+The first argument is still the name of the task (:name in this case).
+The next two arguments are the names of the parameters expected by
+:name in an array (:first_name and :last_name in the example).
+
+To access the values of the parameters, the block defining the task
+behaviour can now accept a second parameter:
+
+ task :name, [:first_name, :last_name] do |t, args|
+ puts "First name is #{args.first_name}"
+ puts "Last name is #{args.last_name}"
+ end
+
+The first argument of the block "t" is always bound to the current
+task object. The second argument "args" is an open-struct like object
+that allows access to the task arguments. Extra command line
+arguments to a task are ignored. Missing command line arguments are
+picked up from matching environment variables. If there are no
+matching environment variables, they are given the nil value.
+
+If you wish to specify default values for the arguments, you can use
+the with_defaults method in the task body. Here is the above example
+where we specify default values for the first and last names:
+
+ task :name, [:first_name, :last_name] do |t, args|
+ args.with_defaults(:first_name => "John", :last_name => "Dough")
+ puts "First name is #{args.first_name}"
+ puts "Last name is #{args.last_name}"
+ end
+
+=== Tasks that Expect Parameters and Have Prerequisites
+
+Tasks that use parameters have a slightly different format for
+prerequisites. Use the arrow notation to indicate the prerequisites
+for tasks with arguments. For example:
+
+ task :name, [:first_name, :last_name] => [:pre_name] do |t, args|
+ args.with_defaults(:first_name => "John", :last_name => "Dough")
+ puts "First name is #{args.first_name}"
+ puts "Last name is #{args.last_name}"
+ end
+
+=== Deprecated Task Parameters Format
+
+There is an older format for declaring task parameters that omitted
+the task argument array and used the :needs keyword to introduce the
+dependencies. That format is still supported for compatibility, but
+is not recommended for use. The older format may be dropped in future
+versions of rake.
+
+== Accessing Task Programmatically
+
+Sometimes it is useful to manipulate tasks programmatically in a
+Rakefile. To find a task object, use the <tt>:[]</tt> operator on the
+<tt>Rake::Task</tt>.
+
+=== Programmatic Task Example
+
+For example, the following Rakefile defines two tasks. The :doit task
+simply prints a simple "DONE" message. The :dont class will lookup
+the doit class and remove (clear) all of its prerequisites and
+actions.
+
+ task :doit do
+ puts "DONE"
+ end
+
+ task :dont do
+ Rake::Task[:doit].clear
+ end
+
+Running this example:
+
+ $ rake doit
+ (in /Users/jim/working/git/rake/x)
+ DONE
+ $ rake dont doit
+ (in /Users/jim/working/git/rake/x)
+ $
+
+The ability to programmatically manipulate tasks gives rake very
+powerful meta-programming capabilities w.r.t. task execution, but
+should be used with cation.
+
+== Rules
+
+When a file is named as a prerequisite, but does not have a file task
+defined for it, Rake will attempt to synthesize a task by looking at a
+list of rules supplied in the Rakefile.
+
+Suppose we were trying to invoke task "mycode.o", but no task is
+defined for it. But the rakefile has a rule that look like this ...
+
+ rule '.o' => ['.c'] do |t|
+ sh "cc #{t.source} -c -o #{t.name}"
+ end
+
+This rule will synthesize any task that ends in ".o". It has a
+prerequisite a source file with an extension of ".c" must exist. If
+Rake is able to find a file named "mycode.c", it will automatically
+create a task that builds "mycode.o" from "mycode.c".
+
+If the file "mycode.c" does not exist, rake will attempt
+to recursively synthesize a rule for it.
+
+When a task is synthesized from a rule, the +source+ attribute of the
+task is set to the matching source file. This allows us to write
+rules with actions that reference the source file.
+
+=== Advanced Rules
+
+Any regular expression may be used as the rule pattern. Additionally,
+a proc may be used to calculate the name of the source file. This
+allows for complex patterns and sources.
+
+The following rule is equivalent to the example above.
+
+ rule( /\.o$/ => [
+ proc {|task_name| task_name.sub(/\.[^.]+$/, '.c') }
+ ]) do |t|
+ sh "cc #{t.source} -c -o #{t.name}"
+ end
+
+<b>NOTE:</b> Because of a _quirk_ in Ruby syntax, parenthesis are
+required on *rule* when the first argument is a regular expression.
+
+The following rule might be used for Java files ...
+
+ rule '.java' => [
+ proc { |tn| tn.sub(/\.class$/, '.java').sub(/^classes\//, 'src/') }
+ ] do |t|
+ java_compile(t.source, t.name)
+ end
+
+<b>NOTE:</b> +java_compile+ is a hypothetical method that invokes the
+java compiler.
+
+== Importing Dependencies
+
+Any ruby file (including other rakefiles) can be included with a
+standard Ruby +require+ command. The rules and declarations in the
+required file are just added to the definitions already accumulated.
+
+Because the files are loaded _before_ the rake targets are evaluated,
+the loaded files must be "ready to go" when the rake command is
+invoked. This make generated dependency files difficult to use. By
+the time rake gets around to updating the dependencies file, it is too
+late to load it.
+
+The +Rake.import+ command addresses this by specifying a file to be
+loaded _after_ the main rakefile is loaded, but _before_ any targets
+on the command line are invoked. In addition, if the file name
+matches an explicit task, that task is invoked before loading the
+file. This allows dependency files to be generated and used in a
+single rake command invocation.
+
+<b>NOTE:</b> Starting in Rake version 0.9.0, the top level +import+
+command is deprecated and we recommend using the scoped
+"+Rake.import+" command mentioned above. Future versions of Rake will
+drop support for the top level +import+ command.
+
+=== Example:
+
+ require 'rake/loaders/makefile'
+
+ file ".depends.mf" => [SRC_LIST] do |t|
+ sh "makedepend -f- -- #{CFLAGS} -- #{t.prerequisites} > #{t.name}"
+ end
+
+ Rake.import ".depends.mf"
+
+If ".depends" does not exist, or is out of date w.r.t. the source
+files, a new ".depends" file is generated using +makedepend+ before
+loading.
+
+== Comments
+
+Standard Ruby comments (beginning with "#") can be used anywhere it is
+legal in Ruby source code, including comments for tasks and rules.
+However, if you wish a task to be described using the "-T" switch,
+then you need to use the +desc+ command to describe the task.
+
+=== Example:
+
+ desc "Create a distribution package"
+ task :package => [ ... ] do ... end
+
+The "-T" switch (or "--tasks" if you like to spell things out) will
+display a list of tasks that have a description. If you use +desc+ to
+describe your major tasks, you have a semi-automatic way of generating
+a summary of your Rake file.
+
+ traken$ rake -T
+ (in /home/.../rake)
+ rake clean # Remove any temporary products.
+ rake clobber # Remove any generated file.
+ rake clobber_rdoc # Remove rdoc products
+ rake contrib_test # Run tests for contrib_test
+ rake default # Default Task
+ rake install # Install the application
+ rake lines # Count lines in the main rake file
+ rake rdoc # Build the rdoc HTML Files
+ rake rerdoc # Force a rebuild of the RDOC files
+ rake test # Run tests
+ rake testall # Run all test targets
+
+Only tasks with descriptions will be displayed with the "-T" switch.
+Use "-P" (or "--prereqs") to get a list of all tasks and their
+prerequisites.
+
+== Namespaces
+
+As projects grow (and along with it, the number of tasks), it is
+common for task names to begin to clash. For example, if you might
+have a main program and a set of sample programs built by a single
+Rakefile. By placing the tasks related to the main program in one
+namespace, and the tasks for building the sample programs in a
+different namespace, the task names will not will not interfere with
+each other.
+
+For example:
+
+ namespace "main" do
+ task :build do
+ # Build the main program
+ end
+ end
+
+ namespace "samples" do
+ task :build do
+ # Build the sample programs
+ end
+ end
+
+ task :build => ["main:build", "samples:build"]
+
+Referencing a task in a separate namespace can be achieved by
+prefixing the task name with the namespace and a colon
+(e.g. "main:build" refers to the :build task in the +main+ namespace).
+Nested namespaces are supported, so
+
+Note that the name given in the +task+ command is always the unadorned
+task name without any namespace prefixes. The +task+ command always
+defines a task in the current namespace.
+
+=== FileTasks
+
+File task names are not scoped by the namespace command. Since the
+name of a file task is the name of an actual file in the file system,
+it makes little sense to include file task names in name space.
+Directory tasks (created by the +directory+ command) are a type of
+file task and are also not affected by namespaces.
+
+=== Name Resolution
+
+When looking up a task name, rake will start with the current
+namespace and attempt to find the name there. If it fails to find a
+name in the current namespace, it will search the parent namespaces
+until a match is found (or an error occurs if there is no match).
+
+The "rake" namespace is a special implicit namespace that refers to
+the toplevel names.
+
+If a task name begins with a "^" character, the name resolution will
+start in the parent namespace. Multiple "^" characters are allowed.
+
+Here is an example file with multiple :run tasks and how various names
+resolve in different locations.
+
+ task :run
+
+ namespace "one" do
+ task :run
+
+ namespace "two" do
+ task :run
+
+ # :run => "one:two:run"
+ # "two:run" => "one:two:run"
+ # "one:two:run" => "one:two:run"
+ # "one:run" => "one:run"
+ # "^run" => "one:run"
+ # "^^run" => "rake:run" (the top level task)
+ # "rake:run" => "rake:run" (the top level task)
+ end
+
+ # :run => "one:run"
+ # "two:run" => "one:two:run"
+ # "^run" => "rake:run"
+ end
+
+ # :run => "rake:run"
+ # "one:run" => "one:run"
+ # "one:two:run" => "one:two:run"
+
+== FileLists
+
+FileLists are the way Rake manages lists of files. You can treat a
+FileList as an array of strings for the most part, but FileLists
+support some additional operations.
+
+=== Creating a FileList
+
+Creating a file list is easy. Just give it the list of file names:
+
+ fl = FileList['file1.rb', file2.rb']
+
+Or give it a glob pattern:
+
+ fl = FileList['*.rb']
+
+== Odds and Ends
+
+=== do/end versus { }
+
+Blocks may be specified with either a +do+/+end+ pair, or with curly
+braces in Ruby. We _strongly_ recommend using +do+/+end+ to specify the
+actions for tasks and rules. Because the rakefile idiom tends to
+leave off parentheses on the task/file/rule methods, unusual
+ambiguities can arise when using curly braces.
+
+For example, suppose that the method +object_files+ returns a list of
+object files in a project. Now we use +object_files+ as the
+prerequisites in a rule specified with actions in curly braces.
+
+ # DON'T DO THIS!
+ file "prog" => object_files {
+ # Actions are expected here (but it doesn't work)!
+ }
+
+Because curly braces have a higher precedence than +do+/+end+, the
+block is associated with the +object_files+ method rather than the
++file+ method.
+
+This is the proper way to specify the task ...
+
+ # THIS IS FINE
+ file "prog" => object_files do
+ # Actions go here
+ end
+
+----
+
+== See
+
+* README.rdoc -- Main documentation for Rake.
diff --git a/lib/rake/doc/rational.rdoc b/lib/rake/doc/rational.rdoc
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..0e1c338
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lib/rake/doc/rational.rdoc
@@ -0,0 +1,151 @@
+= Why rake?
+
+Ok, let me state from the beginning that I never intended to write this
+code. I'm not convinced it is useful, and I'm not convinced anyone
+would even be interested in it. All I can say is that Why's onion truck
+must by been passing through the Ohio valley.
+
+What am I talking about? ... A Ruby version of Make.
+
+See, I can sense you cringing already, and I agree. The world certainly
+doesn't need yet another reworking of the "make" program. I mean, we
+already have "ant". Isn't that enough?
+
+It started yesterday. I was helping a coworker fix a problem in one of
+the Makefiles we use in our project. Not a particularly tough problem,
+but during the course of the conversation I began lamenting some of the
+shortcomings of make. In particular, in one of my makefiles I wanted to
+determine the name of a file dynamically and had to resort to some
+simple scripting (in Ruby) to make it work. "Wouldn't it be nice if you
+could just use Ruby inside a Makefile" I said.
+
+My coworker (a recent convert to Ruby) agreed, but wondered what it
+would look like. So I sketched the following on the whiteboard...
+
+ "What if you could specify the make tasks in Ruby, like this ..."
+
+ task "build" do
+ java_compile(...args, etc ...)
+ end
+
+ "The task function would register "build" as a target to be made,
+ and the block would be the action executed whenever the build
+ system determined that it was time to do the build target."
+
+We agreed that would be cool, but writing make from scratch would be WAY
+too much work. And that was the end of that!
+
+... Except I couldn't get the thought out of my head. What exactly
+would be needed to make the about syntax work as a make file? Hmmm, you
+would need to register the tasks, you need some way of specifying
+dependencies between tasks, and some way of kicking off the process.
+Hey! What if we did ... and fifteen minutes later I had a working
+prototype of Ruby make, complete with dependencies and actions.
+
+I showed the code to my coworker and we had a good laugh. It was just
+about a page worth of code that reproduced an amazing amount of the
+functionality of make. We were both truly stunned with the power of
+Ruby.
+
+But it didn't do everything make did. In particular, it didn't have
+timestamp based file dependencies (where a file is rebuilt if any of its
+prerequisite files have a later timestamp). Obviously THAT would be a
+pain to add and so Ruby Make would remain an interesting experiment.
+
+... Except as I walked back to my desk, I started thinking about what
+file based dependencies would really need. Rats! I was hooked again,
+and by adding a new class and two new methods, file/timestamp
+dependencies were implemented.
+
+Ok, now I was really hooked. Last night (during CSI!) I massaged the
+code and cleaned it up a bit. The result is a bare-bones replacement
+for make in exactly 100 lines of code.
+
+For the curious, you can see it at ...
+* doc/proto_rake.rdoc
+
+Oh, about the name. When I wrote the example Ruby Make task on my
+whiteboard, my coworker exclaimed "Oh! I have the perfect name: Rake ...
+Get it? Ruby-Make. Rake!" He said he envisioned the tasks as leaves
+and Rake would clean them up ... or something like that. Anyways, the
+name stuck.
+
+Some quick examples ...
+
+A simple task to delete backup files ...
+
+ task :clean do
+ Dir['*~'].each {|fn| rm fn rescue nil}
+ end
+
+Note that task names are symbols (they are slightly easier to type
+than quoted strings ... but you may use quoted string if you would
+rather). Rake makes the methods of the FileUtils module directly
+available, so we take advantage of the <tt>rm</tt> command. Also note
+the use of "rescue nil" to trap and ignore errors in the <tt>rm</tt>
+command.
+
+To run it, just type "rake clean". Rake will automatically find a
+Rakefile in the current directory (or above!) and will invoke the
+targets named on the command line. If there are no targets explicitly
+named, rake will invoke the task "default".
+
+Here's another task with dependencies ...
+
+ task :clobber => [:clean] do
+ rm_r "tempdir"
+ end
+
+Task :clobber depends upon task :clean, so :clean will be run before
+:clobber is executed.
+
+Files are specified by using the "file" command. It is similar to the
+task command, except that the task name represents a file, and the task
+will be run only if the file doesn't exist, or if its modification time
+is earlier than any of its prerequisites.
+
+Here is a file based dependency that will compile "hello.cc" to
+"hello.o".
+
+ file "hello.cc"
+ file "hello.o" => ["hello.cc"] do |t|
+ srcfile = t.name.sub(/\.o$/, ".cc")
+ sh %{g++ #{srcfile} -c -o #{t.name}}
+ end
+
+I normally specify file tasks with string (rather than symbols). Some
+file names can't be represented by symbols. Plus it makes the
+distinction between them more clear to the casual reader.
+
+Currently writing a task for each and every file in the project would be
+tedious at best. I envision a set of libraries to make this job
+easier. For instance, perhaps something like this ...
+
+ require 'rake/ctools'
+ Dir['*.c'].each do |fn|
+ c_source_file(fn)
+ end
+
+where "c_source_file" will create all the tasks need to compile all the
+C source files in a directory. Any number of useful libraries could be
+created for rake.
+
+That's it. There's no documentation (other than whats in this
+message). Does this sound interesting to anyone? If so, I'll continue
+to clean it up and write it up and publish it on RAA. Otherwise, I'll
+leave it as an interesting exercise and a tribute to the power of Ruby.
+
+Why /might/ rake be interesting to Ruby programmers. I don't know,
+perhaps ...
+
+* No weird make syntax (only weird Ruby syntax :-)
+* No need to edit or read XML (a la ant)
+* Platform independent build scripts.
+* Will run anywhere Ruby exists, so no need to have "make" installed.
+ If you stay away from the "sys" command and use things like
+ 'ftools', you can have a perfectly platform independent
+ build script. Also rake is only 100 lines of code, so it can
+ easily be packaged along with the rest of your code.
+
+So ... Sorry for the long rambling message. Like I said, I never
+intended to write this code at all.