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authorKazuhiro NISHIYAMA <zn@mbf.nifty.com>2021-12-25 23:11:13 +0900
committerKazuhiro NISHIYAMA <zn@mbf.nifty.com>2021-12-25 23:11:43 +0900
commit53b3c044fc6de4e2224f8601dec583ef93d3a20a (patch)
treedb9e3f07f48b41144a391e1c7d105515f6f2831f /doc
parentda4d6dc1ec90fc69744460871b57dc57a1bf7e3a (diff)
Copy NEWS.md to doc/NEWS-3.1.0.md and update for 3.2.0
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+# NEWS for Ruby 3.1.0
+
+This document is a list of user-visible feature changes
+since the **3.0.0** release, except for bug fixes.
+
+Note that each entry is kept to a minimum, see links for details.
+
+## Language changes
+
+* The block argument can now be anonymous if the block will
+ only be passed to another method. [[Feature #11256]]
+
+ ```ruby
+ def foo(&)
+ bar(&)
+ end
+ ```
+
+* Pin operator now takes an expression. [[Feature #17411]]
+
+ ```ruby
+ Prime.each_cons(2).lazy.find_all{_1 in [n, ^(n + 2)]}.take(3).to_a
+ #=> [[3, 5], [5, 7], [11, 13]]
+ ```
+
+* Pin operator now supports instance, class, and global variables.
+ [[Feature #17724]]
+
+ ```ruby
+ @n = 5
+ Prime.each_cons(2).lazy.find{_1 in [n, ^@n]}
+ #=> [3, 5]
+ ```
+
+* One-line pattern matching is no longer experimental.
+
+* Parentheses can be omitted in one-line pattern matching.
+ [[Feature #16182]]
+
+ ```ruby
+ [0, 1] => _, x
+ {y: 2} => y:
+ x #=> 1
+ y #=> 2
+ ```
+
+* Multiple assignment evaluation order has been made consistent with
+ single assignment evaluation order. With single assignment, Ruby
+ uses a left-to-right evaluation order. With this code:
+
+ ```ruby
+ foo[0] = bar
+ ```
+
+ The following evaluation order is used:
+
+ 1. `foo`
+ 2. `bar`
+ 3. `[]=` called on the result of `foo`
+
+ In Ruby before 3.1.0, multiple assignment did not follow this
+ evaluation order. With this code:
+
+ ```ruby
+ foo[0], bar.baz = a, b
+ ```
+
+ Versions of Ruby before 3.1.0 would evaluate in the following
+ order
+
+ 1. `a`
+ 2. `b`
+ 3. `foo`
+ 4. `[]=` called on the result of `foo`
+ 5. `bar`
+ 6. `baz=` called on the result of `bar`
+
+ Starting in Ruby 3.1.0, the evaluation order is now consistent with
+ single assignment, with the left-hand side being evaluated before
+ the right-hand side:
+
+ 1. `foo`
+ 2. `bar`
+ 3. `a`
+ 4. `b`
+ 5. `[]=` called on the result of `foo`
+ 6. `baz=` called on the result of `bar`
+
+ [[Bug #4443]]
+
+* Values in Hash literals and keyword arguments can be omitted.
+ [[Feature #14579]]
+
+ For example,
+
+ * `{x:, y:}` is a syntax sugar of `{x: x, y: y}`.
+ * `foo(x:, y:)` is a syntax sugar of `foo(x: x, y: y)`.
+
+ Constant names, local variable names, and method names are allowed as
+ key names. Note that a reserved word is considered as a local
+ variable or method name even if it's a pseudo variable name such as
+ `self`.
+
+* Non main-Ractors can get instance variables (ivars) of classes/modules
+ if ivars refer to shareable objects.
+ [[Feature #17592]]
+
+* A command syntax is allowed in endless method definitions, i.e.,
+ you can now write `def foo = puts "Hello"`.
+ Note that `private def foo = puts "Hello"` does not parse.
+ [[Feature #17398]]
+
+## Command line options
+
+* `--disable-gems` is now explicitly declared as "just for debugging".
+ Never use it in any real-world codebase.
+ [[Feature #17684]]
+
+## Core classes updates
+
+Note: We're only listing outstanding class updates.
+
+* Array
+
+ * Array#intersect? is added. [[Feature #15198]]
+
+* Class
+
+ * Class#subclasses, which returns an array of classes
+ directly inheriting from the receiver, not
+ including singleton classes.
+ [[Feature #18273]]
+
+ ```ruby
+ class A; end
+ class B < A; end
+ class C < B; end
+ class D < A; end
+ A.subclasses #=> [D, B]
+ B.subclasses #=> [C]
+ C.subclasses #=> []
+ ```
+
+* Enumerable
+
+ * Enumerable#compact is added. [[Feature #17312]]
+
+ * Enumerable#tally now accepts an optional hash to count. [[Feature #17744]]
+
+ * Enumerable#each_cons and each_slice to return a receiver. [[GH-1509]]
+
+ ```ruby
+ [1, 2, 3].each_cons(2){}
+ # 3.0 => nil
+ # 3.1 => [1, 2, 3]
+
+ [1, 2, 3].each_slice(2){}
+ # 3.0 => nil
+ # 3.1 => [1, 2, 3]
+ ```
+
+* Enumerator::Lazy
+
+ * Enumerator::Lazy#compact is added. [[Feature #17312]]
+
+* File
+
+ * File.dirname now accepts an optional argument for the level to
+ strip path components. [[Feature #12194]]
+
+* GC
+
+ * "GC.measure_total_time = true" enables the measurement of GC.
+ Measurement can introduce overhead. It is enabled by default.
+ GC.measure_total_time returns the current setting.
+ GC.stat[:time] or GC.stat(:time) returns measured time
+ in milli-seconds. [[[Feature #10917]]]
+
+ * GC.total_time returns measured time in nano-seconds. [[[Feature #10917]]]
+
+* Integer
+
+ * Integer.try_convert is added. [[Feature #15211]]
+
+* Kernel
+
+
+ * Kernel#load now accepts a module as the second argument,
+ and will load the file using the given module as the
+ top-level module. [[Feature #6210]]
+
+* Marshal
+
+ * Marshal.load now accepts a `freeze: true` option.
+ All returned objects are frozen except for `Class` and
+ `Module` instances. Strings are deduplicated. [[Feature #18148]]
+
+* MatchData
+
+ * MatchData#match is added [[Feature #18172]]
+
+ * MatchData#match_length is added [[Feature #18172]]
+
+* Method / UnboundMethod
+
+ * Method#public?, Method#private?, Method#protected?,
+ UnboundMethod#public?, UnboundMethod#private?,
+ UnboundMethod#protected? have been added. [[Feature #11689]]
+
+* Module
+
+ * Module#prepend now modifies the ancestor chain if the receiver
+ already includes the argument. Module#prepend still does not
+ modify the ancestor chain if the receiver has already prepended
+ the argument. [[Bug #17423]]
+
+ * Module#private, #public, #protected, and #module_function will
+ now return their arguments. If a single argument is given, it
+ is returned. If no arguments are given, nil is returned. If
+ multiple arguments are given, they are returned as an array.
+ [[Feature #12495]]
+
+* Process
+
+ * Process.\_fork is added. This is a core method for fork(2).
+ Do not call this method directly; it is called by existing
+ fork methods: Kernel.#fork, Process.fork, and IO.popen("-").
+ Application monitoring libraries can overwrite this method to
+ hook fork events. [[Feature #17795]]
+
+* Struct
+
+ * Passing only keyword arguments to Struct#initialize is warned.
+ You need to use a Hash literal to set a Hash to a first member.
+ [[Feature #16806]]
+
+ * StructClass#keyword_init? is added [[Feature #18008]]
+
+* String
+
+ * Update Unicode version to 13.0.0 [[Feature #17750]]
+ and Emoji version to 13.0 [[Feature #18029]]
+
+ * String#unpack and String#unpack1 now accept an `offset:` keyword
+ argument to start the unpacking after an arbitrary number of bytes
+ have been skipped. If `offset` is outside of the string bounds
+ `ArgumentError` is raised. [[Feature #18254]]
+
+* Thread
+
+ * Thread#native_thread_id is added. [[Feature #17853]]
+
+* Thread::Backtrace
+
+ * Thread::Backtrace.limit, which returns the value to limit backtrace
+ length set by `--backtrace-limit` command line option, is added.
+ [[Feature #17479]]
+
+* Thread::Queue
+
+ * Thread::Queue.new now accepts an Enumerable of initial values.
+ [[Feature #17327]]
+
+* Time
+
+ * Time.new now accepts optional `in:` keyword argument for the
+ timezone, as well as `Time.at` and `Time.now`, so that is now
+ you can omit minor arguments to `Time.new`. [[Feature #17485]]
+
+ ```ruby
+ Time.new(2021, 12, 25, in: "+07:00")
+ #=> 2021-12-25 00:00:00 +0700
+ ```
+
+ At the same time, time component strings are converted to
+ integers more strictly now.
+
+ ```ruby
+ Time.new(2021, 12, 25, "+07:30")
+ #=> invalid value for Integer(): "+07:30" (ArgumentError)
+ ```
+
+ Ruby 3.0 or earlier returned probably unexpected result
+ `2021-12-25 07:00:00`, not `2021-12-25 07:30:00` nor
+ `2021-12-25 00:00:00 +07:30`.
+
+ * Time#strftime supports RFC 3339 UTC for unknown offset local
+ time, `-0000`, as `%-z`. [[Feature #17544]]
+
+* TracePoint
+
+ * TracePoint.allow_reentry is added to allow reenter while TracePoint
+ callback.
+ [[Feature #15912]]
+
+* $LOAD_PATH
+
+ * $LOAD_PATH.resolve_feature_path does not raise. [[Feature #16043]]
+
+* Fiber Scheduler
+
+ * Add support for `Addrinfo.getaddrinfo` using `address_resolve` hook.
+ [[Feature #17370]]
+
+ * Introduce non-blocking `Timeout.timeout` using `timeout_after` hook.
+ [[Feature #17470]]
+
+ * Introduce new scheduler hooks `io_read` and `io_write` along with a
+ low level `IO::Buffer` for zero-copy read/write. [[Feature #18020]]
+
+ * IO hooks `io_wait`, `io_read`, `io_write`, receive the original IO object
+ where possible. [[Bug #18003]]
+
+ * Make `Monitor` fiber-safe. [[Bug #17827]]
+
+ * Replace copy coroutine with pthread implementation. [[Feature #18015]]
+
+* Refinement
+
+ * New class which represents a module created by Module#refine.
+ `include` and `prepend` are deprecated, and `import_methods` is added
+ instead. [[Bug #17429]]
+
+## Stdlib updates
+
+* The following default gem are updated.
+ * RubyGems 3.3.3
+ * base64 0.1.1
+ * benchmark 0.2.0
+ * bigdecimal 3.1.1
+ * bundler 2.3.3
+ * cgi 0.3.1
+ * csv 3.2.2
+ * date 3.2.2
+ * did_you_mean 1.6.1
+ * digest 3.1.0
+ * drb 2.1.0
+ * erb 2.2.3
+ * error_highlight 0.3.0
+ * etc 1.3.0
+ * fcntl 1.0.1
+ * fiddle 1.1.0
+ * fileutils 1.6.0
+ * find 0.1.1
+ * io-console 0.5.10
+ * io-wait 0.2.1
+ * ipaddr 1.2.3
+ * irb 1.4.1
+ * json 2.6.1
+ * logger 1.5.0
+ * net-http 0.2.0
+ * net-protocol 0.1.2
+ * nkf 0.1.1
+ * open-uri 0.2.0
+ * openssl 3.0.0
+ * optparse 0.2.0
+ * ostruct 0.5.2
+ * pathname 0.2.0
+ * pp 0.3.0
+ * prettyprint 0.1.1
+ * psych 4.0.3
+ * racc 1.6.0
+ * rdoc 6.4.0
+ * readline 0.0.3
+ * readline-ext 0.1.4
+ * reline 0.3.0
+ * resolv 0.2.1
+ * rinda 0.1.1
+ * ruby2_keywords 0.0.5
+ * securerandom 0.1.1
+ * set 1.0.2
+ * stringio 3.0.1
+ * strscan 3.0.1
+ * tempfile 0.1.2
+ * time 0.2.0
+ * timeout 0.2.0
+ * tmpdir 0.1.2
+ * un 0.2.0
+ * uri 0.11.0
+ * yaml 0.2.0
+ * zlib 2.1.1
+* The following bundled gems are updated.
+ * minitest 5.15.0
+ * power_assert 2.0.1
+ * rake 13.0.6
+ * test-unit 3.5.3
+ * rexml 3.2.5
+ * rbs 2.0.0
+ * typeprof 0.21.1
+* The following default gems are now bundled gems.
+ * net-ftp 0.1.3
+ * net-imap 0.2.2
+ * net-pop 0.1.1
+ * net-smtp 0.3.1
+ * matrix 0.4.2
+ * prime 0.1.2
+ * debug 1.4.0
+
+* Coverage measurement now supports suspension. You can use `Coverage.suspend`
+ to stop the measurement temporarily, and `Coverage.resume` to restart it.
+ See [[Feature #18176]] in detail.
+
+* Random::Formatter is moved to random/formatter.rb, so that you can
+ use `Random#hex`, `Random#base64`, and so on without SecureRandom.
+ [[Feature #18190]]
+
+## Compatibility issues
+
+Note: Excluding feature bug fixes.
+
+* `rb_io_wait_readable`, `rb_io_wait_writable` and `rb_wait_for_single_fd` are
+ deprecated in favour of `rb_io_maybe_wait_readable`,
+ `rb_io_maybe_wait_writable` and `rb_io_maybe_wait` respectively.
+ `rb_thread_wait_fd` and `rb_thread_fd_writable` are deprecated. [[Bug #18003]]
+
+## Stdlib compatibility issues
+
+* `ERB#initialize` warns `safe_level` and later arguments even without -w.
+ [[Feature #14256]]
+
+* `lib/debug.rb` is replaced with `debug.gem`
+
+* `Kernel#pp` in `lib/pp.rb` uses the width of `IO#winsize` by default.
+ This means that the output width is automatically changed depending on
+ your terminal size. [[Feature #12913]]
+
+* Psych 4.0 changes `Psych.load` as `safe_load` by the default.
+ You may need to use Psych 3.3.2 for migrating to this behavior.
+ [[Bug #17866]]
+
+## C API updates
+
+* Documented. [[GH-4815]]
+
+* `rb_gc_force_recycle` is deprecated and has been changed to a no-op.
+ [[Feature #18290]]
+
+## Implementation improvements
+
+* Inline cache mechanism is introduced for reading class variables.
+ [[Feature #17763]]
+
+* `instance_eval` and `instance_exec` now only allocate a singleton class when
+ required, avoiding extra objects and improving performance. [[GH-5146]]
+
+* The performance of `Struct` accessors is improved. [[GH-5131]]
+
+* `mandatory_only?` builtin special form to improve performance on
+ builtin methods. [[GH-5112]]
+
+* Experimental feature Variable Width Allocation in the garbage collector.
+ This feature is turned off by default and can be enabled by compiling Ruby
+ with flag `USE_RVARGC=1` set. [[Feature #18045]] [[Feature #18239]]
+
+## JIT
+
+* Rename Ruby 3.0's `--jit` to `--mjit`, and alias `--jit` to `--yjit`
+ on non-Windows x86-64 platforms and to `--mjit` on others.
+
+### MJIT
+
+* The default `--mjit-max-cache` is changed from 100 to 10000.
+
+* JIT-ed code is no longer cancelled when a TracePoint for class events
+ is enabled.
+
+* The JIT compiler no longer skips compilation of methods longer than
+ 1000 instructions.
+
+* `--mjit-verbose` and `--mjit-warning` output "JIT cancel" when JIT-ed
+ code is disabled because TracePoint or GC.compact is used.
+
+### YJIT: New experimental in-process JIT compiler
+
+New JIT compiler available as an experimental feature. [[Feature #18229]]
+
+See [this blog post](https://shopify.engineering/yjit-just-in-time-compiler-cruby
+) introducing the project.
+
+* Disabled by default, use `--yjit` command-line option to enable YJIT.
+
+* Performance improvements on benchmarks based on real-world software,
+ up to 22% on railsbench, 39% on liquid-render.
+
+* Fast warm-up times.
+
+* Limited to Unix-like x86-64 platforms for now.
+
+## Static analysis
+
+### RBS
+
+* Generics type parameters can be bounded ([PR](https://github.com/ruby/rbs/pull/844)).
+
+ ```rbs
+ # `T` must be compatible with the `_Output` interface.
+ # `PrettyPrint[String]` is ok, but `PrettyPrint[Integer]` is a type error.
+ class PrettyPrint[T < _Output]
+ interface _Output
+ def <<: (String) -> void
+ end
+
+ attr_reader output: T
+
+ def initialize: (T output) -> void
+ end
+ ```
+
+* Type aliases can be generic. ([PR](https://github.com/ruby/rbs/pull/823))
+
+ ```rbs
+ # Defines a generic type `list`.
+ type list[T] = [ T, list[T] ]
+ | nil
+
+ type str_list = list[String]
+ type int_list = list[Integer]
+ ```
+
+* [rbs collection](https://github.com/ruby/rbs/blob/master/docs/collection.md) has been introduced to manage gems’ RBSs.
+
+* Many signatures for built-in and standard libraries have been added/updated.
+
+* It includes many bug fixes and performance improvements too.
+
+See the [CHANGELOG.md](https://github.com/ruby/rbs/blob/master/CHANGELOG.md) for more information.
+
+### TypeProf
+
+* [Experimental IDE support](https://github.com/ruby/typeprof/blob/master/doc/ide.md) has been implemented.
+* Many bug fixes and performance improvements since Ruby 3.0.0.
+
+## Debugger
+
+* A new debugger [debug.gem](https://github.com/ruby/debug) is bundled.
+ debug.gem is a fast debugger implementation, and it provides many features
+ like remote debugging, colorful REPL, IDE (VSCode) integration, and more.
+ It replaces `lib/debug.rb` standard library.
+
+* `rdbg` command is also installed into `bin/` directory to start and control
+ debugging execution.
+
+## error_highlight
+
+A built-in gem called error_highlight has been introduced.
+It shows fine-grained error locations in the backtrace.
+
+Example: `title = json[:article][:title]`
+
+If `json` is nil, it shows:
+
+```
+$ ruby test.rb
+test.rb:2:in `<main>': undefined method `[]' for nil:NilClass (NoMethodError)
+
+title = json[:article][:title]
+ ^^^^^^^^^^
+```
+
+If `json[:article]` returns nil, it shows:
+
+```
+$ ruby test.rb
+test.rb:2:in `<main>': undefined method `[]' for nil:NilClass (NoMethodError)
+
+title = json[:article][:title]
+ ^^^^^^^^
+```
+
+This feature is enabled by default.
+You can disable it by using a command-line option `--disable-error_highlight`.
+See [the repository](https://github.com/ruby/error_highlight) in detail.
+
+## IRB Autocomplete and Document Display
+
+The IRB now has an autocomplete feature, where you can just type in the code, and the completion candidates dialog will appear. You can use Tab and Shift+Tab to move up and down.
+
+If documents are installed when you select a completion candidate, the documentation dialog will appear next to the completion candidates dialog, showing part of the content. You can read the full document by pressing Alt+d.
+
+## Miscellaneous changes
+
+* lib/objspace/trace.rb is added, which is a tool for tracing the object
+ allocation. Just by requiring this file, tracing is started *immediately*.
+ Just by `Kernel#p`, you can investigate where an object was created.
+ Note that just requiring this file brings a large performance overhead.
+ This is only for debugging purposes. Do not use this in production.
+ [[Feature #17762]]
+
+* Now exceptions raised in finalizers will be printed to `STDERR`, unless
+ `$VERBOSE` is `nil`. [[Feature #17798]]
+
+* `ruby -run -e httpd` displays URLs to access. [[Feature #17847]]
+
+* Add `ruby -run -e colorize` to colorize Ruby code using
+ `IRB::Color.colorize_code`.
+
+[Bug #4443]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/4443
+[Feature #6210]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/6210
+[Feature #10917]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/10917
+[Feature #11256]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/11256
+[Feature #11689]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/11689
+[Feature #12194]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/12194
+[Feature #12495]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/12495
+[Feature #12913]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/12913
+[Feature #14256]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/14256
+[Feature #14579]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/14579
+[Feature #15198]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/15198
+[Feature #15211]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/15211
+[Feature #15912]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/15912
+[Feature #16043]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/16043
+[Feature #16182]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/16182
+[Feature #16806]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/16806
+[Feature #17312]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17312
+[Feature #17327]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17327
+[Feature #17370]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17370
+[Feature #17398]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17398
+[Feature #17411]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17411
+[Bug #17423]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17423
+[Bug #17429]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17429
+[Feature #17470]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17470
+[Feature #17479]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17479
+[Feature #17485]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17485
+[Feature #17544]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17544
+[Feature #17592]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17592
+[Feature #17684]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17684
+[Feature #17724]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17724
+[Feature #17744]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17744
+[Feature #17750]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17750
+[Feature #17762]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17762
+[Feature #17763]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17763
+[Feature #17795]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17795
+[Feature #17798]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17798
+[Bug #17827]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17827
+[Feature #17847]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17847
+[Feature #17853]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17853
+[Bug #17866]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17866
+[Bug #18003]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18003
+[Feature #18008]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18008
+[Feature #18015]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18015
+[Feature #18020]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18020
+[Feature #18029]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18029
+[Feature #18045]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18045
+[Feature #18148]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18148
+[Feature #18172]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18172
+[Feature #18176]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18176
+[Feature #18190]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18190
+[Feature #18229]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18229
+[Feature #18239]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18239
+[Feature #18254]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18254
+[Feature #18273]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18273
+[Feature #18290]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18290
+
+[GH-1509]: https://github.com/ruby/ruby/pull/1509
+[GH-4815]: https://github.com/ruby/ruby/pull/4815
+[GH-5112]: https://github.com/ruby/ruby/pull/5112
+[GH-5131]: https://github.com/ruby/ruby/pull/5131
+[GH-5146]: https://github.com/ruby/ruby/pull/5146